Nepal


संघीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल
Sanghiya Loktāntrik Ganatantra Nepāl
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
जननी जन्मभूमिष्च स्वर्गादपि गरियसि

Nepal lies on the southern slopes of Himalayas between China and India. In the north the mountains include the tallest mountain in the world Mt. EVEREST. The central upland area cut through by fertile valleys and along the border with India are cultivated areas.

Nepal has a long and important history of Buddhism tradition. Sakya muni (The lord Buddha) was born in southern Nepal around 560 B.S.The most common image of Nepal outside its borders are the skilled guides and mountaineers known as Sherpa. >>> More About Sherpa >>>

Nepal is blessed with an incredible diversity of natural beauty and a consequent opulence of cultural varieties. Due to difficult terrain and insufficient facilities of transport and communication, several fascinating areas of Nepal are still difficult of access for time conscious and comfort visitors. Most major city have basic amenities like road and air network, electricity, communication and accommodation facilities

Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. The country was frequently called the Gorkha Kingdom, the source of the term “Gurkha” used for Nepalese soldiers.

After 1800, the heirs of Prithvi Narayan Shah proved unable to maintain firm political control over Nepal. A period of internal turmoil followed, heightened by Nepal’s defeat in a war with the British from 1814 to 1816. Stability was restored after 1846 when the Rana family gained power, entrenched itself through hereditary prime ministers, and reduced the monarch to a figurehead. The Rana regime, a tightly centralized autocracy, pursued a policy of isolating Nepal from external influences. This policy helped Nepal maintain its national independence during the colonial era, but it also impeded the country’s economic development.

In 1950, King Tribhuvan, a direct descendant of Prithvi Narayan Shah, fled his “palace prison” to newly independent India, touching off an armed revolt against the Rana administration. This allowed the return of the Shah family to power and, eventually, the appointment of a non-Rana as prime minister. A period of quasi-constitutional rule followed, during which the monarch, assisted by the leaders of fledgling political parties, governed the country. During the 1950s, efforts were made to frame a constitution for Nepal that would establish a representative form of government, based on a British model.

Head of state: PresidentPresident Ram Baran Yadav

Type of Government: Republic

Head of government: Prime MinisterPrime Minister:  

judicial: Supreme Court, 11 appellate courts, 75 district courts

Subdivisions: 5 development regions, 14 zones and 75 districts

National Day: Democracy Day, Falgun 7 (mid-February)

Flag: Two blue-edged red triangles pointing away from staff,

with symbols of the sun and moon in white.

Main Political Parties: Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), United Marxist Leninist (UML), Rastriya Prajatantra Party (RPP), Nepali Congress Party; Nepali Congress Democratic, Nepal Sadbhawana Party, Rastriya Jana Morcha, Maoist

Climate

Nepal experiences 4 seasons

Spring (Mar – May)

Summer (Jun – Aug)

Autumn (Sep – Nov)

Winter (Dec – Feb)

The climate is varied ranging from the sub-tropical Terai to the cool dry temperate and alpine climate in the northern Himalayan ranges. In the Terai, the hottest part of the country, summer temperatures may rise as high as 40 º. The climate is hot and humid. In the midmountain region, the summer climate is mild with temperatures around 25º – 27º. The winter temperatures range from 7º to 23º in the Terai and subzero to 12º in the mountain regions and valleys. The northern Himalayan region has an alpine climate. The valley of Kathmandu has a pleasant equable climate with average summer and winter temperatures of 19º – 27º and 2º – 12º respectively.

GeographyNepal can be divided into three main geographical regions:

Himalayan RegionThe altitude of this region ranges between 4877 meters and 8848 meters with the now line running around 488848 meters. It includes 8 of the existing 14 summits in the world which exceed the altitude of 8000 meters. They are: (1) Sagarmatha (Mt. Everest) – 8848 m (2) Kangchenjunga – 8586 m, (3) Lhotse – 8516 m, (4) Makalu – 8463 m, (5) Cho Oyo – 8201 m, (6) Dhaulagiri – 8167 m, (7) Manaslu – 8163 m, and (8) Annapurna – 8091 m.

Mountain Region

This region accounts for about 64 percent of total land area. The Mahabharat range that rises upto 4877 meters forms it. To its south lies the lower Churia range whose altitude varies from 610 meters to 1524 meters.

Terai Region

The lowland Terai region, which has a width of about 26 to 32 kilometers and an altitude maximum of 305 meters, occupies about 17 percent of total land area of the country. Kechanakawal, the lowest point of the country with an altitude of 70 meters lies in Jhapa District of the eastern Terai.

All this adds up one interesting fact that there is no seasonal constraint on travelling in and through Nepal. Even in December and January, when the winter is at its severest, there are compensating bright sun and brilliant views. Winter days often begin in mist, which can last until noon. Then suddenly, as if by magic, the fog disappears bringing in to views snowy peaks, glistening white and fresh against the large blue sky.

Country Statistics

Official Name: Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal

Official language: Nepali

Area 52,820 sq miles (147181 sq km) Water 2.8%

Location Latitude = 26° 22′ N to 30° 27′ N

Longitude =80° 4′ E to 88° 12′ E

Border China’s Autonomous Region Tibet in the North

India in the South, East & West

Population Density 156 People/sq.km

Currency 1 Nepalese rupee = 100 Paisa

Exchange rate (2005),73.674(2004),76.141(2003),77.877 = 1 US$

Capital Kathmandu (pop 535,000)

Main cities Lalitpur, Bhaktapur, Biratnager, Birjung

Language Nepali 47.8%, Maithali 12.1%, Bhojpuri 7.4%, Tharu (Dagaura/Rana) 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.6%, Magar 3.3%, Awadhi 2.4%, other 10%, unspecified 2.5%

Religions Hindu 80.6%, Buddhist 10.7%, Muslim 4.2%, Kirant 3.6%, other 0.9%

Total GDP About US$42.17 billion

Annul growth rate 6%

Foreign currency reserves: $36.4 billion

Debt Repayment Ratio: (5.1%)

Imports About US$37.0 billion

Imports partners India 46.3%,China 10.8%,UAE 9.3%,Saudi Arabia 4.1%

Major import goods: Gold, Machinery equipment, Petroleum

Exports About US$8.7 billion

Exports partners India 47.4%, US 22.7%, Germany 8.4%

Major import goods: Carpets, Clothing, Leather goods

Per Capitol Income US $1,500

Population= 29,331,000

Population Growth 2.2%

Death rate= 9.47/1000 People

Life expectancy 54 Years

Birth rate =31.45/1000 People

Time zone: UTC (+5:45)

ISO 3166-1: NP/NPL

Internet TLD: .np

Calling code: 977