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Offline NoBody

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Nepalese Civil War
« on: February 28, 2007, 08:00:52 AM »
The Nepalese Civil War (labelled People's War by the Maoists) was a conflict between monarchist government forces and Maoist rebels in Nepal which lasted from 1996 until 2006. The war was started by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) on February 13, 1996, with the aim of establishing the "People's Republic of Nepal."

More than 12,700 people were killed (over 4,000 by Maoists and 8,200 by the government) and an estimated 100,000 to 150,000 people were internally displaced as a result of the conflict. This conflict disrupted the majority of rural development activities and led to a deep and complex transformation of Nepalese society. On November 21, 2006, a peace agreement was signed between the rebels and the new democratic government.

Overview

In 1990 the autocratic Panchayat system was overthrown in a massive popular uprising (Jana Andolan). During the Jana Andolan most communist factions rallied around the United Left Front , together with the Nepali Congress, was the backbone of the broadbased movement for democratic change. However, communist groups uncomfortable with the alliance between ULF and Congress formed a parallel front, the United National People's Movement. The UNPM called for elections to a Constituent Assembly, and rejected compromises made by ULF and Congress with the royal house. In November 1990 the Communist Party of Nepal (Unity Centre) was formed, including key elements of constituents of UNPM. The new party held its first convention in 1991, the adopted a line of "protracted armed struggle on the route to a new democratic revolution" and that the party would remain an underground party. The CPN(UC) set up Samyukta Jana Morcha, with Baburam Bhattarai as its head, as an open front to contest elections. In the 1991 elections, SJM became the third force in the Nepalese parliament. However, disagreements surged regarding which tactics to be used by the party. One sector argued for immediate armed revolution whereas others (including senior leaders like Nirmal Lama) claimed that Nepal was not yet ripe for armed struggle.

In 1994 CPN(UC)/SJM where split in two. The militant sector later renamed itself as the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist). The Maoists labeled the government forces "feudal forces," and included in this accusation the monarchy and the mainstream political parties. The armed struggle began soon afterwards with simultaneous attacks on remote police stations and district headquarters. Initially, the Nepalese government mobilized the Nepal Police to contain the insurgency. The Royal Nepal Army was not involved in direct fighting because the conflict was regarded as a matter for the police to sustain control. Furthermore, controversy grew regarding the army not assisting the police during insurgent attacks in remote areas. The popularly-elected prime minister resigned his post, due to the refusal of the Royal Army to take part in the conflict. This situation changed dramatically in 2002 when the first session of peace talks failed and the Maoists attacked an army barracks in Dang District in western Nepal. Overnight, the army was unleashed against the insurgents. At the same time, the king of Nepal maintained a puppet democratic government which depended upon him for their status to remain legitimate. Under the aegis of the global War on Terrorism and with the stated goal of averting the development of a "failed state" that could serve as a source of regional and international instability, the United States, European Union, and India, among other nations, have provided extensive military and economic aid to the Nepalese government. This material support to the Nepalese government dried up after King Gyanendra seized full control in February 2005.

The government responded to the rebellion by banning provocative statements about the monarchy, imprisoning journalists, and shutting down newspapers accused of siding with the insurgents. Several rounds of negotiations, accompanied by temporary cease-fires, have been held between the insurgents and the government. The government has categorically rejected the insurgents' demand for an election to the constituent assembly; it would result in the abolition of the monarchy by a popular vote. At the same time, the Maoists have refused to recognize the installation of a constitutional monarchy. In November 2004, the government rejected the Maoists' request to negotiate directly with the King Gyanendra rather than via the Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba; their request for discussions to be mediated by a third party, such as the United Nations was dismissed.

Throughout war, the government controlled the main cities and towns, whilst the Maoist dominated the rural areas. Historically, the presence of the Nepalese government has been limited to town and zonal centers. The only state apparatus present in most small villages, where most of the inhabitants of Nepal live, were a health post, a government school, a village council, and a police booth. Once the insurgency began, the schools were all that remained, indicating that the Maoists had seized control of the village. The Royal government powerbase is located in the zonal headquarters and the capital Kathmandu. Unrest reached Kathmandu in 2004 when the Maoists announced a blockade of the capital city.

Intense fighting and civic unrest continued well into 2005, with the death toll rising to 200 in December 2004. On February 1, 2005, in response to the inability of the relatively democratic government to restore order, King Gyanendra assumed total control of the government. He proclaimed, "Democracy and progress contradict one another? In pursuit of liberalism, we should never overlook an important aspect of our conduct, namely discipline."

On November 22, 2005, the joint CPN(M)-United People's Front conference in Delhi issued a 12-point resolution, stating that they "?completely agree that autocratic monarchy is the main hurdle" hindering the realisation of "democracy, peace, prosperity, social advancement and a free and sovereign Nepal." In addition, "It is our clear view that without establishing absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy, there is no possibility of peace, progress, and prosperity in the country."

An understanding had been reached to establish absolute democracy by ending autocratic monarchy with the respective forces centralizing their assault against autocratic monarchy thereby creating a nationwide storm of democratic protests. This marked a departure from the previous stance of the CPN(M), which had so far vehemently opposed the gradual process of democratization advocated by the UPF.

As a result of the civil war, Nepal's greatest source of foreign exchange, its tourism industry, suffered considerably. iExplore, a travel company, published rankings of the popularity of tourist destinations, based on their sales, which indicated that Nepal had gone from being the tenth most popular destination among adventure travelers, to the twenty-seventh. This was the first time that Nepal had been outside the top 10 for several successive years and is a strong indication of the pressures on the government.

The conflict has forced the young and able to seek work abroad. These labourers work predominantly in the Gulf (Qatar, Saudi Arabia, etc.) and Southeast Asia (Malaysia etc). The regular flow of remittances from these labourers has permitted the country to avoid serious economic crisis or economic bankruptcy. The economy of Nepal has become dependent on the infusion of foreign income from the labouring class (similar to the Lebanese economy during its civil war).

It is worth noting that both sides in the civil war have been observed using British arms dating from World War I and World War II, notably the Lee-Enfield rifle, the Bren Machine gun, and the Sten Submachine gun, as well as 1950s vintage AK-47 rifles and FN SLR rifles.


Timeline

 1996
February 13: Initiation of "the people's war" by the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist)
Kathmandu: A soft-drink bottling factory owned by a multi-national company is attacked and a portion of the building torched.
Gorkha District
A liquor factory is destroyed.
The office of the Small Farmer's Development Programme of the state-owned Agricultural Development Bank in Chyangli VDC (Village Development Committee) is ransacked.
Kavre District: A moneylender's house is raided at night, properties and cash reportedly worth 1.3 million rupees seized, and loan documents worth several million rupees reportedly destroyed.
Rolpa, Rukum & Sindhuli Districts: One police outpost raided in each district. The outpost at Holeri, Rolpa has its stores seized, including a substantial amount of high explosives. Athbiskot-Rari, Rukum is also raided. The Sindhuligarhi post in Sindhuli is reportedly raided without resistance.

2001
January: The government creates the Armed Police Force to fight the insurgents.
May 28: Chairman Prachanda gives an interview with the Communist journal A World to Win.
June 1: Crown Prince Dipendra reportedly kills King Birendra and most of the royal family. Dipendra, comatose after a failed suicide attempt or assassination attempt by palace guards, is crowned king, according to tradition. He soon dies, however, and two days later, Gyanendra is crowned King.
August 3: The first round of peace talks begin
November 23: Peace talks collapse when the Maoists withdraw and attack police and army posts in 42 districts.
November 26: The monarchy declares a nationwide state of emergency and employs the Nepal Army in attacking the Maoists.

 2002
The United States Congress approves US$12 million to train Royal Nepal Army officers and supply 5,000 M16 rifles.
May: Peace talks collapse.
May 11: A photograph is discovered by Nepal government soldiers in western Nepal. The photograph depicts Nepal's Maoist rebel leaders Baburam Bhattarai, Hishila Yami, Ram Bahadur Thapa (alias Badal), and Pushpa Kamal Dahal (alias Prachanda).
May 22: Prime Minister Deuba, at King Gyanendra's word, dissolves parliament and orders new elections. The reason given for the dissolution is opposition to the state of emergency.
July 11: Information leaks out that the Belgian weapon manufacturer FN Herstal is allowed to deliver 5,500 M249 Minimi rifles to the Nepalese monarchy, a decision made by all coalition parties. Minister of External Affairs Louis Michel speaks of "a country in a pluralistic democracy."
October 4: King Gyanendra deposes Prime Minister Deuba and the entire Council of Ministers, assumes executive power, and cancels the elections for the dissolved House of Representatives, which had been scheduled for November 11.
October 11: King Gyanendra appoints Lokendra Bahadur Chand as Prime Minister.

2003
January: The United States hold exercises with the Nepalese army.Maoist insurgents kill the Inspector General of Police, his wife and his bodyguard, while on their morning walk, as they used to do on Sunday mornings, intending to represent general safety to fellow citizens. The Inspector General and his wife, who was a teacher at an international school in the capital, were both unarmed.
January 29: A second ceasefire is established and peace talks begin.
May 13: Code of conduct jointly declared by the government and the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) for the mutually agreed period of cease-fire.
August 17: Killing of 19 rebels and civilians in the Ramechhap District of central Nepal.
August 24: The Maoists set an ultimatum, threatening to withdraw from the cease-fire if the government does not agree within 48 hours to include the question of the Maoists participating in the Constituent Assembly.
August 26: The Maoist ultimatum expires.
August 27:
Strike: The Maoist call for a one-day strike to denounce the army's attacks on their cadres.
The Maoists unilaterally withdraw from the January 29 cease-fire. Prachanda's statement revives the rebels' demand for an end to monarchic rule in favor of a people's republic, stating, "Since the old regime has put an end to the forward-looking solution to all existing problems through the cease-fire and peace talks, we herein declare that the rationale behind cease-fire...and peace process has ended."
September 27: "Fifteen people including 12 rebels were killed on Saturday and suspected Maoists bombed five government utilities despite the guerrillas' plans for a nine day truce from October 2, officials said. Twelve Maoists were killed in a gun battle with security forces at Chhita Pokhara in the Khotang District, 340 kilometres east of Kathmandu, a police officer said. Elsewhere in eastern Nepal, the Maoists killed two policemen, Purna Giri and Radha Krishna Rai, and a woman selling beetle nuts, Kala Chaudhary, in the Jaljale-Gaighat area, an official said. 'A group of seven Maoists descended from a public bus when police were checking the passengers and suddenly opened fire, killing the three and wounding two others,' said Sita Ram Pokharel, the chief administrator for the region. In Janakpur, an industrial hub on the Indian border 260 kilometres south-east of Kathmandu, the rebels carried out five early morning bombings that disrupted telephone service and power, police said. No one was killed directly by the blasts but an elderly man died of a heart attack after hearing the explosions, police inspector Bharat Khadka said. He said the sites that were bombed included the offices of the roads department and the Nepal Electricity Authority and a telecommunications tower. Troops and Maoists traded fire for nearly 40 minutes after the blasts but the rebels escaped and no one was injured, Mr Khadka said."
October 13: At least 37 people are killed when an estimated 1,000 Maoists attempt to storm a police training center in Bhaluwang. "'The rebels had snapped telephone cables, set up roadblocks by felling trees or blowing up highway bridges to prevent reinforcements from coming,' a witness, Krishna Adhikary, told Reuters."
October 27: "Lieutenant Colonel Adrian Griffith and six Nepalese nationals were freed last week 42 hours after being taken captive in Baglung, 300 km (190 miles) west of Kathmandu, while on a drive to recruit young Gurkha soldiers to serve in the British army." Party chief Prachanda said, "We are sorry for the incident that took place against the policy of the party."
November 11: The government Defence Ministry accuses the Maoists of abducting twenty-nine 9th- and 10th-grade students from Riva Secondary School in Mugu District, western Nepal during the previous week.
November 19: According to a Nepal army official, four people were caught at the Chinese Khasa border point, 114 kilometers northeast of Kathmandu, smuggling weapons from Tibet into Nepal. The official named Hirala Lal Shrestha and Gyaljen Sherpa and said they were taken for interrogation in the Tibetan town of Xigatse.

2004
February 5: A government raid is carried out on a village in Bhimad, Makwanpur District. Reports emerge that 14 suspected Maoist activists and two civilians have been extra-judicially executed. Amnesty International later wrote a letter to Prime Minister Surya Bahadur Thapa and Colonel Nilendra Aryal, Head of the Royal Nepal Army (RNA) human rights cell, demanding an immediate inquiry.
February 10: Two central committee members of Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist), Matrika Yadav and Suresh Alemagar, are reported to have been handed over by India to Nepal. They were reportedly arrested in Lucknow after Nepal provided information.
February 13: Ganesh Chilwal leads an anti-Maoist protest on this day, the ninth anniversary of the commencement of the revolution.
February 15: Ganesh Chilwal is shot dead in his Kathmandu office by two men.
February 15: Fighting erupts at a Maoist jungle base in Kalikot District, 360km west of Kathmandu. The base is said to hold 1000 Maoist troops. On February 17, a security official says that a private helicopter flying troops to Kalikot was hit by Maoist fire but that it returned safely to Kathmandu. On February 18, 65 are reported killed, though this conflicts with other reported death tolls of 35 and 48.
February 15 and 16: State radio report 13 rebels killed in seven separate small clashes across the kingdom.
February 18: Lawmaker Khem Narayan Faujdar, a member of the parliament dissolved by King Gyanendra in 2002, is shot dead by two suspected Maoists riding a motorcycle in the Nawalparasi District, 200 km southwest of the capital, according to the police.
April 2: The largest rallies since 1990 begin in Kathmandu. They are variously labelled "pro-democracy" and "anti-monarchy."
April 3: More than 12 trucks are burnt while waiting at a western Nepal border post to pick up petrol from India. India condemns the attacks and vows to fight terrorism.
April 4: "Some 150 demonstrators were struck during a police baton charge" during demonstrations in Kathmandu
April 4 "Hundreds of Maoist rebels" attack a police post in Yadukuwa, Jadukhola killing at least nine police. 35 police are reported missing, 9 dead, and 7 wounded. 8 to 9 rebels are reported dead. "Witnesses said more than 500 rebels bombed the police post and began firing automatic weapons at around 9 p.m. (1515 GMT) on Sunday night. The fighting lasted two to three hours." Other reports state 400 rebels.
April 4: In the west of the country three Indian traders are shot and injured and have their vehicles burned.
April 5: A three day national strike begins, called by CPN(M) and opposed by an "alliance of five political parties" who are protesting in Kathmandu against the monarchy and say the strike will hamper the movement of demonstrators in Kathmandu. Prachanda said, "The time has come to win a united struggle against the feudal forces as the king is trying to take the nation back to the 18th century."
April 5: In the morning, 3 soldiers are killed and 7 injured by a CPN(M) landmine activated by their vehicle at Dhalkhola, 50km east of Kathmandu.
April 5: At least 140 people are injured in clashes in Kathmandu as "about 50,000" demonstrators confront the police. Demonstrators try to break through a police barricade close to the royal palace. The police respond with tear gas and protesters are reportedly injured by police batons. Rocks and bricks are thrown by both sides. Demonstrations also occur in Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Meanwhile, king Gyanendra has reportedly been away touring villages in western Nepal.
April 5: The Indian government announces that it will no longer provide police escorts to Indian officials shopping in Nepal, as a means to discourage such trips. Fears are based on the CPN(M) targeting Indians. "We are worried about possible reprisals here if the Maoists continue to target Indians inside Nepal," said a senior police official.
August 16: The Soaltee Hotel, a popular luxury hotel in Kathmandu, is bombed, after refusing a demand from the Maoists that the hotel close.
August 18: A bomb explodes in a marketplace in southern Nepal. The blast kills a 12-year-old boy and wounds six others, including three policemen. In addition, Maoist rebels, demanding the release of captured guerrillas, stop all road traffic near Kathmandu by threatening to attack vehicles. Some Nepal businesses are shut down because of threats.
September 10: A bomb explodes at the United States Information Service office in Kathmandu.
September 13: U.S. Peace Corps suspends operations and non-essential U.S. Embassy personnel are evacuated from Nepal.
December 15: Twenty government security personnel are killed in the western district of Arghakhanchi when the Maoists mount a surprise attack.
December 16: Sixteen Maoist rebels are killed in clashes with Nepalese security forces in the western district of Dailekh.
December 23: Maoist forces launch blockade of Kathmandu
December 26: Over 15,000 hold peace rally in Kathmandu

 2005
January 2: Nepalese media falsely reports two children being killed in Dailekh District by a Maoist bomb.
January 4: Three government security personnel and between two and twenty-four Maoist rebels reported killed in fighting.
January 8: Maoists detain and later release 300 passengers from six buses that defy their blockade of Kathmandu.
January 10: Prime Minister Deuba said he would increase defense spending to fight the Maoists unless they come forward for talks with the government.
January 11: Protests and blockades over the government fuel price increases of between 10% and 25%.
January 15: Maoists allegedly detain 14 Indian Gurkhas from Chuha village in Kailali.
February 1: King Gyanendra dissolves parliament and bans all news reports. The army begins arresting senior political leaders, journalists, trade unionists, human rights activists and civil society leaders. All telephone and internet connections are cut.
February 28: The Indian Army intervenes and is first spotted in Nepal, killing 32 Maoist rebels.
June 6: Badarmude bus explosion: Some 38 civilians are killed and over 70 injured after a packed passenger bus runs over a rebel landmine in Chitwan District.
August 9: Maoist rebels kill 40 security men in midwestern Nepal.
September 3: The Maoists declare a three-month unilateral ceasefire to woo opposition political parties.
November 19: After negotiations, the Maoist rebels agree to work with opposition politicians in a common front against the rule of King Gyanendra of Nepal.

2006
January 2: Rebels decide not to extend a four month ceasefire saying that the government had broken the ceasefire with numerous attacks on Maoist villages.
March 14: Nepalese rebels extend road blockade; nationwide strike called for April 3
April 5: General strike begins with Maoist forces promising to refrain from violence.
April 6, 7: Protesters clash with police, hundreds arrested, dozens injured.
April 8: A curfew is imposed in Kathmandu from 10 p.m. to 9 a.m. The king orders protesters violating the curfew to be "shot on sight."
April 9: General strike scheduled to end. Government extends curfew, BBC reports. Three dead in two days of unrest, as thousands of demonstrators defy curfews.
April 27: Maoist insurgents, responding to a demand by the newly appointed Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, announce a unilateral three-month truce after weeks of pro-democracy protests in Kathmandu, and encourage the formation of a new constituent assembly tasked with rewriting the nation's constitution.
May 3: Nepal's new cabinet declares a ceasefire. The cabinet also announces that the Maoist rebels will no longer be considered a terrorist group. Rebels are also encouraged to open peace talks.
November 21: Peace talks end with the signing of a deal between Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala and Maoist leader Prachanda. The deal allows the Maoists to take part in government, and places their weapons under UN monitoring.
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Offline शेर्पा

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Re: Nepalese Civil War
« Reply #1 on: March 06, 2007, 11:10:37 AM »
kudos to mockin!! excellent work man! really very informative topic. we had almost forgot the past if you have'nt knock our back.

Offline baby girl

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Re: Nepalese Civil War
« Reply #2 on: March 09, 2007, 08:10:41 AM »
mockinbrd thanks for you contribution in this section ?front door to Nepal. I have no word to pay you thanks and I know you might not get reply from members in this section like they does in other section but please keep continue your work. Some time we have should not think about what will get back from!! You are doing great job and I am sure every single member in this forum are appreciates of you. This section 'Front door to Nepal" is really very useful for young generations specially NRN kids like me to find our root.

Offline **dArK_bO!**

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Re: Nepalese Civil War
« Reply #3 on: April 09, 2007, 04:54:48 PM »
good  job  mokin dai hehe
'Cause noth!n' lasts forever,And we both know hearts can change,And !t's hard to hold a candle,In the cold November ra!n

Offline naughtyboy

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Re: Nepalese Civil War
« Reply #4 on: June 02, 2007, 10:42:21 AM »
nepal ma pani yti dherai civil war haaru bhayecha :shocking
dEAd  mAn  wAlkiNg

 


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