Author Topic:  (Read 6006 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline devaki12

  • *
  • Posts: 9
  • Reputation : 0
  • Gender: Female
  • We Love Nepal
« on: September 26, 2012, 04:08:02 PM »

Bhattarai has contributed a number of published works, including The Nature of Underdevelopment and Regional structure of Nepal: A Marxist Analysis (Adroit Publishers, Delhi, 2003) which is a cursory rewriting of his PhD thesis. Other works include Politico-Economic Rationale of People's War in Nepal (Utprerak Publications, Kathmandu, 1998), and Nepal! krantika adharharu (in Nepali) (Janadisha Publications, 2004). His books and articles have had some impact on Nepalis both home and abroad, though primarily only on those who share his political beliefs . Among his many well read newspaper articles is "Let’s Give No Legitimacy to the Beneficiaries of the New Kot Massacre"[16] written in the aftermath of Palace Massacre of 2001. Similarly, it is widely believed that he is the principal author of the most successful Election Manifesto brought out by Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists) in March 2write for more information visit this site;board=94.0http://

Offline shiva raj niraula

  • *
  • Posts: 2
  • Reputation : 0
  • We Love Nepal
toner cartridges
« Reply #1 on: September 27, 2012, 07:16:22 AM »
Toner Catridges

A toner cartridge, also called laser toner, is the consumable component of a laser printer. Toner cartridges contain toner powder, a fine, dry mixture of plastic particles, carbon, and black or other coloring agents that make the actual image on the paper. The toner is transferred to paper via an electrostatically charged drum unit, and fused onto the paper by heated rollers during the printing process.

    1 Variants
    2 Price
    3 Cartridge types
    4 Availability
    5 Sustainability
    6 See also
    7 References
    8 External links


Low-end to mid-range laser printers typically contain two consumables parts: the toner cartridge itself (typical life 2,000 pages) and the drum unit (typical life 40,000 pages). Some toner cartridges incorporate the drum unit in the design and therefore replacing the toner means replacing the drum unit every single time, although some consider this type unessential and therefore not cost-effective.

Toner cartridges can be expensive, sometimes exceeding the cost of the printer itself. This is generally only true for cheap laser printers; for this reason people may dispose of the printer when it is out of toner and replace the entire machine (though new machines generally come with toners that are only ⅓ full). Alternatively, consumers can turn to generic brand laser toners that are manufactured by companies other than the printer manufacturer, which are widely available at a fraction of the price of the genuine brand replacement. In addition, toner refill kit could be used to refill an empty cartridge.

Cartridge types

Genuine - Also known as "Original Equipment Manufacturer" or "OEM"

    These are manufactured by printer manufacturers. Manufacturers offer certain guarantees when you use genuine brand toner in your printer and makes certain threats if you don't, voiding warranty is a typical accusation made, although in many countries this is illegal. Genuine cartridges are more expensive than refills, compatibles or re-manufactured cartridges, however you can reduce the difference in price dramatically by purchasing cartridges from a specialist retailer.

Compatible - Also known as "Generic" or "Alternative Brand"

    These cartridges are manufactured from scratch, they are not used cartridges that have been refilled or re-manufactured. They are produced by a third party companies and sold under different brand names. Often compatible cartridges may vary slightly in look, design and page yield to their genuine counterparts due to certain patents that restrict the exact copying of designs. Although some might say these generic cartridges less reliable, they are undoubtedly a cost-effective alternative to the genuine article.


    A process by which the OEM cartridge is dismantled after the first use. Any worn or defective parts are replaced and the cartridge is cleaned then it is refilled with toner.


Remanufactured, compatible, OEM and refilled toner cartridges are available from a variety of sources. While compatible and OEM cartridges are typically items that can be purchased off-the-shelf, companies that offer remanufactured cartridges typically require the customer to provide an empty cartridge, which is then remanufactured and provided back to the customer.[citation needed]

None of the refilling companies manufacture the empty shell. All of them use the shell of the exhausted cartridge, clean it, replace all the damaged parts, fill it up with fresh toner and repack it.

Although the remanufacturing process relies on there being an empty cartridge available, some companies (a handful of larger chain stores) are able to offer remanufactured cartridges off-the-shelf in the same manner that OEM and compatible cartridges are purchased. This is a factor of their size and volume which allows cartridges to be remanufactured centrally in bulk and later inventoried at store level to be picked up as an off-the-shelf item by the consumer.[citation needed] Worldwide, not many companies make empty cartridges. They buy the used cartridges from users through the scrap dealers, refurbish them and keep them ready for sale.[citation needed]

Each brand new toner cartridge requires the burning of over 2 quarts of petroleum in the manufacturing process. In North America alone, more than 200 million litres of petroleum are used to sustain the production of new toner cartridges with the majority of these cartridges ending up in the worlds landfills once empty. Manufactures have responded by developing recycling programs for their used cartridges. On August 1, 2011 Hewlett Packard issued a press release showing their recycling process involves a partnership with an Asian firm that reuses plastic collected from the empty cartridges.

Advocates[who?] of more environmentally friendly processes claim that using refilled and remanufactured toner cartridges are much more environmentally friendly than using brand name new cartridges. Refilled and remanufactured cartridges reduce the dependancy on petroleum that otherwise would have been used in the manufacture process of the new cartridge. Advocates[who?] also claim that the recycling programs devised by manufacturers are not always as environmentally friendly as consumers might think or in comparisson to other options that may be available.

HP's recycling program involves the recycling of cartridges in partnership with a company in Asia. The process uses significant amounts of petroleum in the collection of empty cartridges on one continent and in transporting them half way around the world to be recycled. In this example, walking to your local remanufacturer is certainly more sustainable than the affore mentioned process.

Lexmark also has a similar program which they claim is in place to assure that as many empties as possible are collected and reused.[1] The program is called the "Prebate return program". In their prebate model the toner cartridges are always owned by Lexmark and consumers purchase the right to use the cartridge until empty. Once empty, Lexmark requires that the cartridges are returned to Lexmark. Since the prebate program cartridges are much more inexpensive to purchase from Lexmark, consumers are pushed into choosing those cartridges over the non prebate program cartridges.

Advocates[who?] claim that since empty prebate cartridges are "owned" by Lexmark; and since Lexmark expressely forbids the remanufacturing or recycling of the cartridge by anyone other than themselves; and since third party remanufacturers cannot therefore remanufacture the empty cartridges; and since the majority of cartridges are never returned to Lexmark, the result is that the prebate program actually ensures fewer cartridges are recycled and customers are more often required to purchase brand name OEM cartridges.
See also
Portal icon    Computing portal

    Ink Cartridge
    Remanufactured Ink Cartridge
    Compatible ink
    Toner refill

For more information please visit this site :

Offline radhabiswa

  • *
  • Posts: 2
  • Reputation : 0
  • Gender: Female
  • We Love Nepal
philadelphia real estate
« Reply #2 on: November 25, 2012, 01:22:03 PM »
lphia 2012

Christmas time is an absolutely amazing time to be in Philadelphia. Walking through the snow cover cobblestone blocks of Society Hill or Rittenhouse Square where the stately townhouses are decorated for the season feels straight out of a movie. It is also a great time of year to buy Philadelphia real estate because people are [...]
The Atacan Group Open Houses: Sunday, November 18,2012

Come check out two incredible Philadelphia open houses: 411 S. 9th St. #3F Philadelphia, PA 19147 – $199,900 –Washington Square -11:30AM-1:00PM 122-124 Chestnut St. 300 Philadelphia, PA 19103 – $254,900 – Old City- 11:00AM-1:00PM This is brought to you by Philadelphia Real Estate Blog To view every Philadelphia Real Estate Listing, including Philadelphia Condos
Carrington launches distressed property network
Member brokers will manage business from institutional investors read more

Republicans put fiscal cliff back in Obama's court
Commentary: Profound budget and spending cuts needed to avoid another recession read more

Large New York brokerage stops syndicating to Zillow and Trulia
Nothnagle Realtors cites inaccuracies, advertisements around listings read more

MRIS injunction against NeighborCity applies only to photographs
Judge: MLS may ultimately prove copyright interest in textual elements of listing database read more

'Latte Vision' to set tone of real estate technology confab
Inman News Publisher Brad Inman will set out his vision at Real Estate Connect New York City read more

Give thanks if you qualify for record low mortgage rates
Bernanke: Tight lending standards and shadow inventory muting housing sector's contribution to recovery read more

The greatest real estate technology ever
Hint: It's not a website, app or CRM system read more

for more information visit this site:

Offline puspanand kumar yadav

  • *
  • Posts: 26
  • Reputation : 0
  • Gender: Male
  • We Love Nepal
alabama criminal defense lawyer
« Reply #3 on: November 26, 2012, 11:58:28 AM »
    November 26, 2012

You are here: Home / BRADFORD LADNER, LLP. – An Alabama Law Firm
BRADFORD LADNER, LLP. – An Alabama Law Firm
Bradford Ladner LLP an Alabama Law FirmBradford Ladner LLP is an Alabama Law Firm Focused on Litigation

Bradford Ladner LLP is a Birmingham, Alabama Law Firm with a focus on providing high quality and experienced representation in trials and appeals in all State and Federal Courts in Alabama.  The principle attorneys at Bradford Ladner have 30 years of litigation experience handling criminal defense, civil litigation, divorce, and appellate cases for our clients.  William K. “Chip Bradford and Amber L. Ladner have successfully handled many hundreds of cases at the trial level and on appeal for our clients.

The attorneys at the Alabama law firm of Bradford Ladner LLP have a thorough knowledge of the law and have represented countless clients in trials, hearing and appeals.  We give your case out personal attention, mastering the facts of your case and devising a legal strategy that will bring a positive outcome to your case.

William K. “Chip” Bradford has been practicing law in  Alabama for 20 years.  He is a native of Byram, Mississippi and graduated from Cumberland School of Law in 1993.  His practice focuses on Appellate Law and Appeals, Criminal Defense, and Civil Litigation.

Amber L. Ladner is a 2003 graduate of Birmingham School of Law.  She is a native of Birmingham, Alabama.  Her practice focuses on Criminal Defense, Divorce and Child Custody, and Family Law.
Areas of Practice

    Criminal Defense
    Civil Litigation
fore more information visit this site ;

Offline rajeshkumarshrestha

  • *
  • Posts: 28
  • Reputation : 0
  • Gender: Male
  • We Love Nepal
hp ink coupons
« Reply #4 on: November 26, 2012, 02:45:14 PM »
All in hp models Ink refill Cartridges with a extreme discount is found in a link You can select the desire HP Ink Cartridge and HP Laser Toner in the given link plus there is list of all hp printers in fax series, inkjet series, scanner/copier/printer series, desk writer series and many more is found. To know about the discount and purchase please visit the above link for more information. Thank you!!!!!!!!!!
« Last Edit: November 26, 2012, 03:03:19 PM by rajeshkumarshrestha »


Host By::Love Nepal Network SMF 2.0.2 | SMF © 2011, Simple Machines Our Privacy Policy & Terms of Use