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Offline haku Black

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History of Nepali Literature
« on: February 11, 2007, 07:46:29 PM »
Nepali Language has been evolved from Sanskrit . Initially Nepali was considered as "Gorkhali" or  "Khas" language  .  It got its name 'Nepali' only after  king Prithivi Narayan Shah united the country . 

The oldest evidence found in Nepali Language is Ashok Chilla's bronze plate, carved in 1321 B.S.

The oldest book found is 'Khanda Khadya'  (1642) whose writer is still unknown. Another old books  without author's name are 'swasthani Bharatkatha'.(1658) and 'Baj Parikxya' (1700).The oldest book whose author is known is translated version of Bani Bilas Jyotirbid's 'Jwarup Pati Chikitsha'(1773) and 'Prayashit Predip' by Prem Nidhi Pant in Sanskrit.Both the books were tranlated by Prem Nidhi Pant .

According to Dr. T.N. Sharma, to make the study of the history of Nepali Literature convinient NL can be divided in to 5 eras.

 I.Pre Bhanu Bhakta Era (from beginning to 1871 B.S.)

 II. Bhanu Bhakta Era (from 1872 B.S. to 1936 B.S.)

 III. Moti Ram Era  (from 1940B.S. to 1976 B.S.)

 IV. Pre Revolution Era  (from 1977 B.S. to 2007 B.S.)

 V. Post Revolution Era  (from 2007 B.S. to present.)

I. Pre Bhanu Bhakta Era ( beginning to 1871B.S.)

In that era the articles were generally written upon the bravery. In any language, the literature written in primitive age are mostly found as poetry. But, without the proper development of the prose poetry cannot be written. So, prose also has dominant existence in this era.

The important authors of this era and their major works

Shuwananda Das:He was a Newar and wrote many  poetries. The special thing about him is that he used the lyrical folksongs  instead of routine Sanskret tredition.He was born in Lalitpur and used to live in Nuga.
His works: There are 3 Shadhya ko kabi. 2 of them are believed to be written by him .It contains the live presentation of the war between the bulls. The event is considered as the emblem of victories of Gorkhali army .  He also wrote many poetries  about king  Prithivi Narayan Shah's bravery ,victories , journey to Kasi etc.
Radha Ballav Arjyal:  he was a fine poet .Out of 3 Shadhya ko kabit one is written by him.
Prithivi Narayan Shah: He is the founder of modern Nepal . He has not written any book by own hand  but, the advices given by him at the last times of his life were transferred by any one else in  the written form .
His works: 'Divya Upedesh' (1832): It is considered as the oldest original  prose written in Nepali. It is capable of  introducing the specialty of that age .In the cost of his long experiences, he has given the fine instructions which  are really supreme and even applicable for today.

Shakti Ballav Arjyal: He was a scholar and very fine writer ,wrote both poems and prose .He was also the royal priest of P.N.Shah's palace. and and  the brother of Radha Ballav Arjyal.
His works: He translated "Hanshyakaduba" to Nepali .It was originally written by Arjjyal himself in Sanskrit.He wrote "Jayaratnakar natak"(in Sanskrit) along with many poetries praising king P.N.Shah .
Udaya Nanda Arjyal: He is causion of S.B.Arjjyal. He has also written many poetries praising king P.N.Shah .
Bhanu Datta: He translated "hitopadesh mitralav" in 1833.

Pt. Divya Kasheri Arjjyal (1847-1904) : He wrote "Goraksha Yog shastra".

Gumani Pant (1847-1904) : He used to live in Almoda .When P.N.Shah won Almoda he started to write about P.N.Shah's bravery.
Indiras
Bir Shali Panta : "Bimalbodhanuvaba"

Bidhya Kasheri Arjyal(1863-1912) : "Ugal Geet","Droupadi Stuti"

II.Bhanu Bhakta Era (from 1872 B.S. to 1936 B.S.)

During this era the whole nation was socked  by the desasterous SUGAULI SANDHI. so, its impression is also seen on the literature.Bbing fed up with politices the writers turn towards the mythalogy.

The important authors of this era and their major works

Bhanu Bhakta Aacharya (1871-19  ):He is not only the centeral personality of this era but also all time Legend of the Nepali Literature.He was Born in Ramgha village of Tanahu district .His father's name was Dhananjaya Aacharya.His grand father Shree krishna Aachara took Bhabu Bhakt to Kasi where he got fine opportunity for study. But, after his grand father's death in    he had to come back to Nepal . A convertation between  a grass-seller  and him is popular.
His works: Ramayan, Badhu Shiksha, Bhakta Mala, Prasnotari, Ram Gita, Few letters to Ram Nath, Tamasukas, Applications etc.

Basanta Padhya Luientel: He was born in 1860 at Katuja village of Bhadagaun  and died in 1901 B.S.
His works: Shree Krishna Charitra, Shamundra Lahari

Yadu Nath Pokhrel: Born in Shaptari. He was patriotic and has written about the Nepali army's bravery .Bhim Sen Thapa's tactful ledership .Most probably he is the first poet to use English words .
His works: Stutipadhya, Krishna Charitra.

Hinbya Karni Bidhayapati: He first time introduced lyrical poetry in NL . He is probably the first poet to write about sex.
His works: Geet Baani, Saat Raag, Saat Naika.

Lalit Tripura Shunderi: She is king Rana B. shah's youngest wife. It is beleved that in 1888 she translated 'Raaj Drarma'.

III. Moti Ram Era  (from 1940B.S. to 1976 B.S.)

 The tradition of writing novel and gazals were introduced in this era . Various literary and news magazines, on Nepali , were started from outside and inside Nepal. The organization "Gorkha Bhasha Prakasani Samiti", which was established by Ranas, was authorized to select which book can be published and which can not. Poet Motiram and his company did a fine job for promoting NL.

 The important authors of this era and their major works

Rajiv Lochan Joshi (1905-1986):He was born and grown up in Kathmandu and was an active member of Motiram's group . Moti Ram was so inspired by his poetries that he used to call  Rajiv as a "Kabi Sheromani".
His works: Kabir Kalpa and many more.

Homnath Khatiwada(1911-1984):Born and grown in Nepal but due to political regions was obliged to move to foreign. Though he kept on serving Nepali literature by writing and translating holy poetries.
His works: Rama Aaswamedh, Krishna Charitra, Nrisingha Charitra etc.

ShikharNath Subedi(1921-2005):Born in Lalitpur, Nepal and moved to Banaras.
His works: Shikharnath Bhaya, Tharagotraprawarawali, Bir-Shastika, Shringar Darpan, Karna Parwa, Pinashko Katha, Swasthani, etc.

Laxmi Dutta Panta(1922-1962): One of the members of Moti Ram's group.
His works: Various poems in books like Gafastak, Sangit Chandrodaya, Sukti Sindhu etc.

Moti Ram Bhatta (1923-1953): Great literary figure, born in Kathmandu and moved to Banaras after age 5. Lived only for thirty years. But, it was enough for him to prove himself. Introduced Gazal in Nepal. He made a group to promote NL. His group included Padma Bilas Panta, Kasi Nath, Ranga Nath, Chet Singh, Tej Bahadur Rana etc.
His works: Pikdut, Gajendramokchhya, Pralhad Bhakti Katha, Usha Charitra, Manodwag Prawaha, Kabisamuhabarnan, Bhramar Geet, Kamal Bhramar Sambad, Life history of Bhanu Bhakta, Swapnadhyaya, Shakunauti etc.

Tirtha Raj Pandey (1929-1979): Born in Dordor, west of Nepal. Joined Moti Ram's group.
His works: Upadesh Manjari, Bidyasundar Sambad.

Gopi Nath Lohani (1930-1974): One of the members of Moti Ram's group.
His works: Satya Durga Bhasa, Dhurba Charitra, Nriga Charitra, Nala Damayanti, Nalopa Yan, Satyawadi Harischandra Katha.

Kulchandra Gautam (1932-2015): Born in Jiwanpur of Bagmati zone. He was a great scholar and was honored by the title "Bidwat Siromani".
His works: Duttacharya, Unmad, Raghawalankar, Purusarthakalpawalli, Prapanchcharcha, Swayambaidya etc.

Kedar Nath Khatiwada (1935-2003): Son of popular poet Homa Nath Khatiwada, more talented than his father.
His works: Naladamyantiko Katha, Subha Biwaha, Shringardarpan, Barhamase, Ritubichar, Rambhasukasambad.

Krishna Prasad Regmi (1940-1985): Born in Dhunibesi, west of Kathmandu valley. Went to Banaras and published various books.
His works: Aadi Parba, Devi Parba, Rambhasukasambad, Shivagita, Vedstuti, Satya Harischandra, Hariharstuthi, Buddimala, Bhaktimala, Laxman Prasnauttari, Patthi-Patthiko Preeti Prabandha, Barhamase, Kamini Birahalahari, shringarmala, Pravawati Charitra  etc.

Soma Nath Sikdhyal (1941-2029): Great scholar of Sanskrit language, born in Jhochhe, Kathmandu. He was honored by the title "Panditraj". He also obtained "Trivuwan Prize" for his contribution.
His works: Translation of Upedesh Satak, Aadharsa Raghav, Chandrika, Sahitya Pradeep etc.

Shambhu Prasad Dhungel (1946-1986): He was born in Kathmandu and grownup  in Birganj. He was very talented poet and was honored by the title "Aasu Kabi".
His works: Shreechandrapratapbarnan, Chandrodayadarshan, Kartavya, Hi Gorkhali Patra, Bandhan, Jagat Ra Ma, Hatimtaiko Katha, Tota-Maina, Aakbar Birbal Binod, Sunkeshra Rani, Lalhirako Katha, Satya Madhu Malati, Betalpachisi, Mahendramali, Junkiri, Ratnavati Natika, Bhanu Bhaktako Jivan Charitra etc.

Chakrapani Chalise(1940-2015): Lyricist of national anthem, "Shreeman gambhira...", was a fine poet of his time. He was honored with "Tribhuvan Prize" for his contributions.
His works: Chakrakabitatarangini, Nepali Samchhipta Ramayan, Nepali Samchhipta Mahabharat, Nepal Sichhya, Bagali Kosh, Paryayabachi Kosh and  many poems published in various magazines.

Chiranjivi Sharma(1924-1997): Born in Bhadgaun and started his literary life in Banaras.
His works: Aaphnu Katha, Editor ko Raya etc.

Naradev Pandey(1928-2001): Maternal uncle of Moti Ram Bhatta.
His works: Aadbhut Milap, Merina Charitrya, Kabibar Moti Ram Bhatta Jivan-Charitrya.

Jaya Prithivi Bahadur Singh(1934-1997): Was the Executive General of Gorkhapatra from 1960-1971.
His works: Prakrit Byakaran, Aacharmala, Balbodh, Shresthabodh, Padarthatatwabibek, Byawaharma, Bhugolbidhya, Tatwa prashansa etc.

Pahalman Singh Swar(1935-1991): He was born in Achham and is a renown play writer.
His works: Atalbahadur, Bimala Devi, Bishnu Maya, Laluvaga, Achhamko Chadparve, Swarko Kura etc.

Ram Mani Aa. Di.(1939-2028): Edited magazine "Madhavi". Became the first president of "Gorkha Bhasa Prakasini Samiti".
His works: Purano Samjhana, Kabitariti, Ek Samichha etc.

Other authors of this era are:
Kalidas Parajuli, Jagannath Sedhai, Baijnath Sedhai, Deepkeshwar Sharma, Kunjabilas Gautam,  Bhuwan Prashad, Hari Bikram, Ram Prasad, Dadhi Ram Marasini, Tara Nath Sharma Nepal, Kasi Nath, Krishna Lal Aadhikari, Hem Raj Sharma, Girish Ballav Joshi, Sada Shiva Sharma, Padma Nav Sapkota, Birendra Keshari, Kedar Samsher etc.

II.Pre Revolution Era (from 1977 B.S. to 2007 B.S.)

The important authors of this era and their major works

Lekh Nath Paudyal (1941-2022): Born in Pokhara and is honored by title of "Kabi Shiromani". He is one of the best poets of Nepal. He got "Tribhuvan Prize".
His works: Taruntapasi, Buddhibinod, Satyakali Sambad, Mero Ram, Ritubichar, Satyasmriti, Lalitya(2 volumes) etc.

Bal Krishna Sama (1959-238): Greatest play writer of Nepal. He changed the name of "Gorkha Bhasa Prakasani Samiti" to "Nepal Bhasa Prakasani Samiti" and worked as the president of it for long time. He was honored from "Tribhuvan Prize", "Prithvi Pragya Prize". He is also honored by the title "Natakkar".
His works: Aago Ra Pani, Chiso Chulho,

Laxmi Prasad Devkota (1966-2016): He is the Greatest poet of Nepal. He was born in Kathmandu. He edited a magazine "Yugvani" and also became education minister for 3 months. He is honored by the title "Mahakabi". He was also given "Tribhuvan Prize" after his death.
His works: Shakuntal, Sulochana, Kunjini, Muna Madan, Basanti, Rajkumar prabhakar, Luni, Maharana Pratap, Bankusum, Gaine Geet, Putali, Bhikari, Sunko Bihan, Mendu, Chilla Patharu, Sita Haran, Ravan Jatayu Yudha, Bhawanagangeya, Manoranjan, Chhahara, Navaras, Aakash Bolchha, Katak, Chhangasanga Kura, Mayavini Sarsi, Krishbala, Pramithas, Prithiviraj Chawhan, Maina, Nepali Meghdut, Laxmi Geet Sangraha, Laxmi Kabita Sangraha, Laxmi Katha Sangraha, Laxmi Nivanda Sangraha etc.

Gopal Prasad Rimal(1975-2030): He is very significant poet of NL. He arose his strong voice against the Ranas through his poems. He was honored by "Madan Prize" and "Tribhuvan Prize". He is also known as "Aadhunik Kabi".
 His works: Aamako Sapana.

Madhav Prasad Ghimire(1976): He was born in Pustun village, Lamjung. He worked in "Bhasaanuwad Parishad", Gorkhapatra and Royal Nepal Academy.
His works: Gauri, Rajeshwari, Kinnar Kinnari, Papini Aama, Ballahari, Ghampani, Shakuntala, Malati Mangale, Rashtranirmata etc.

Dharani Dhar Koirala (1949-2036): Born in Betali village of Ramechhap. He spent many years in Darjining as a teacher. He is a renown poet of Nepal and was honored by "Tribhuvab Prize".
His works: Naibedya, Spandan.

Bhim Nidhi Tiwari (1968-2030): He was born in Dillibazar, Kathmandu. He is one of the greatest literary figure of NL. He has published almost 38 books which is a record for NL.
His works: Bayasi Ra Bis Gazal, Tarpan, Kabita Nanda, Bayasi Bhajan, Barsichhya, Yashaswi Shav, Bisphot, Kabita Kunja, Singhadarbar, Titaura Ra Masyoura, Chadbad, Battis Putali, etc.

Siddhi Charan Shrestha (1969-2049):

Other authors of this era are:
Mahananda Sapkota, Sambabhakta Sharma Murari, Madhav Prasad Devkota, Yudha Prasad Mishra, Laxmi Nandan Sharma, Shyam Raja, Bhawani Prasad Sharma, Chhabi Kanta Upadhyaya, Bindu Nath Sharma, Guna Raj Upadhyaya, Hari Prasad Gorkha, Nayan Raj Panta, Gopi Madhav Devkota, Badari Nath Bhattrai etc.

II.Post Revolution Era (from 2007 B.S. to present.)

The important authors of this era

Kanchan Pudasaini, Aagam Singh Giri, Basu Dev Tripathi, Krishna Prasad Gyawali, Damaru Ballav Aryal, Bharat Raj panta, Ratna Dev Sharma, Bhanu Bhakta Pokhrel, Bharat Raj Sharma Manthiliya, Daivagya Raj Naupane, Bidya Devi Dixit, Ghata Raj Bhattrai, Lila Singh Karma, Laxman Lohani, Ma.B.B. Shah, Rabindra Shah, Nir Bikram Pyasi, Shyam Das Baisnav, Lila Dhwaj Thapa, Susila Koirala, Sabitri Sundas, Mahesh Prasai, Bijaya Malla, Poshan Pandey, Bhupi Serchan, Mohan Koirala, Bairagi Kainla, Kali Prasad Rijal, Basu Shashi, Hari Bhakta Katuwal, Ishwor Baral, Ishwar Ballav, Basu Dev Sharma Luitel, Mod Nath Prashrit, Nagendra Thapa, Gopal Younjan, Prema Shah, Manjul, Sailendra Shakar, Bimal Niva, Bijaya Bajimaya, Toya Gurung, Dinesh Adhikari, Bishnu Bibhu Ghimire, Shyamal, Kunta Sharma, Uday Niraula, Gobinda Bahadur Malla Gothale, Bijaya Malla, Daulat Bikram Bista, Ramesh Bikal, Poshan pandey, Harish Bamjan, Dhurba Chandra Gautam, Indra Bahadur Rai, Shankar Lamichhane, Parsu Pradhan, Madan Mani Dixit, Bhairav Aryal, Manu Brajaki, Basu Baral, Ashesh Malla, Kul Chandra Koirala, Arun Sayami, Shankar Koirala, Rishi Raj Baral, Kabita Ram Shrestha, Krishna Kumari Rai, Ganesh Rasik, Gita Kesari, Chetan Karki, Jas Yonjan, Tarini Prasad Koirala, Dha. Cha. Gotame, Dhuswa Sayami, Nirmohi Byas, Parijaat, Bhabani Bhikchhu, Bhaupanthi, Rajeshwar Devkota, Lil Bahadur Chhetri, Banira Giri, Basu Rimal Yatri, B.P. Koirala, Saru Bhakta, Subas Ghising, Diamond Shamser Rana,  Shyam Prasad, Lain Singh Bangdel, Nagendra Sharma, Rochak Ghimire, Janak Lal Sharma, Tara Nath Sharma, Chuda Mani Bandhu, Kamal Mani Dixit, Binod Dixit, Mohan Raj Sharma, Gobardhanpuja, Chanki Shreshtha, Kartikeya Ghimire, Buddhi Sagar Chapain, Sangita Gurung, Binu Baba, Gyanuwalker Paudel, Ratna Shamser Thapa etc.

Offline SOAD

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #1 on: May 19, 2007, 06:04:55 PM »
Dherai ramro post!

Offline anaRCHy

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #2 on: August 06, 2008, 10:07:56 PM »
tyo Shirish Ko ful Ko Writer Ko Re?

Ani Tyo Jai Bholi Bhanney Ko Writer Ko Re?

Kasto Birseko Yarr

Offline Sk8er Boi

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #3 on: August 06, 2008, 10:09:46 PM »
Parijat
Failure is just a 'comma' to ones carrier not a 'fullstop'..So try again and again...

Offline anaRCHy

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #4 on: August 06, 2008, 10:11:56 PM »
Parijat

Yeah, Parijat..

Ani Tyo Jai Bholi kasley Lekheko Re..Jai Bholi atti Satirical Cha Yarr..10 Ma Ho Ki 9 Padeko..

Offline Sk8er Boi

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #5 on: August 06, 2008, 10:15:25 PM »
Khoi tyo ta maile ni birse...
Failure is just a 'comma' to ones carrier not a 'fullstop'..So try again and again...

Offline ангел

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #6 on: August 06, 2008, 10:41:32 PM »
Parijat.....................Bishnu Kumari Waiba

It was Laxmi Prasad Devkota who introduced Nepalese literature to the outside world, but it was Bishnu Kumari Waiba who opened up the voice of Nepalese women to the world outside. Better known as Parijat, she was a true genius and one of the greatest women writers Nepal has yet produced

Her most celebrated novel, "Blue Mimosa," has found a place on an American university syllabus and has enhanced the literary personality of Parijat, and moreover, of Nepal as a whole.

In most of her distinguished works, she has analyzed and portrayed women's sexual psychology and has fought against the social injustice inflicted on women during male dominated social epochs.

While in her other works, she had brought to the reader's attention the very simple things of life, such as love, emotion, nationalism, society, etc. According to the critics and her ardent admirers, reading her work is like reading their own emotional voices; such is the nature of her work.

Although she was physically and economically paralyzed, suffering early on from physical ailments, from 26 she had to be looked after by her sister for the rest of her life. She never married, and is the most striking exemplification of perseverance and dedication in Nepalese literature.

Parijat was born in 1937 in Darjeeling, India. As her mother died early, her father and grandparents in Darjeeling brought her up. Since her childhood, she was interested in Nepalese literature and this persuaded her to enter the Kathmandu Valley in 1954. From that time, she played a major role in strengthening Nepalese literature.

Parijat wrote novels, stories, poetry and essays, but, she is best known as a novelist. "Siris ko Ful" ("Blue Mimosa") gained the greatest popularity. In 1965, she was awarded with the Madan Puraskar (Nepal's highest literary honor) for the novel.

She died in 1993, but her popularity is still soaring. Nepal cannot afford to forget its most precious daughter, who promoted peace and love in Nepali literature, though she was physically crippled. The biggest trait of her personality, however, was her ability to smile and sail the boat of life serenely against the currents of time.

It Only Takes a Few Seconds To Hurt people You Love & It Can Take Years To Heal

Offline ангел

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #7 on: August 06, 2008, 10:45:47 PM »
Parijat

Yeah, Parijat..

Ani Tyo Jai Bholi kasley Lekheko Re..Jai Bholi atti Satirical Cha Yarr..10 Ma Ho Ki 9 Padeko..
Jai Bholi ...yo ta malai ni thaha chaina
It Only Takes a Few Seconds To Hurt people You Love & It Can Take Years To Heal

Offline soiamd

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #8 on: August 07, 2008, 11:40:00 AM »
jai voli chai vairab aryal le ho

Offline Sk8er Boi

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #9 on: August 07, 2008, 09:02:31 PM »
jai voli chai vairab aryal le ho
yee  :good:
Failure is just a 'comma' to ones carrier not a 'fullstop'..So try again and again...

Offline TheXfactor

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #10 on: August 07, 2008, 09:07:42 PM »
yeaaaa thik thik .. maile ni birseko hehe
I hate myself.. for loving you !!

Offline soiamd

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #11 on: August 07, 2008, 09:44:22 PM »
nepali maa taa kai paryo vane malai soda naa hai maa nepali sir ho hai:p

Offline Eastern Media Solution

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #12 on: August 07, 2008, 09:56:46 PM »
Nice information  :flower:
A Complete Solution of Digital Printing

Offline anaRCHy

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #13 on: August 07, 2008, 10:20:49 PM »
Ani Tyo Vairab Aryal Ko Eauta Arko Pani Thyo Ni...Mapai Bhanney Ho Ki Ke Ho..Naam Chahi Birse...tyo Pani Ekdum Ramro Thyo Yarr..

Offline TheXfactor

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Re: History of Nepali Literature
« Reply #14 on: August 07, 2008, 10:47:25 PM »
"Mero baa sita paisa chaina" chai kosle lekheko ho soi dai?? yaad nai bhayena !!
I hate myself.. for loving you !!

 


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