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Offline ReSi

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Background of the study part -II
« on: April 22, 2008, 01:26:26 PM »
CHAPTER II


2.1 Trekking

                 
 Trekking means walk on foot from one place to another places especially a little difficult journey. In tourism sector trekking is objected to religion, economic, cultural & natural sightseeing. Trekking is that places where transportation is not available and traveler can?t go further by collective means of transportation into the heart of mountain. To trek in the Himalayas means to set off from a given town, village or airfield and to wander through field and hamlets, along valleys and streams or up mountain slopes to any attitude of one?s choice but not above 18000 ft.(5,500m)

Another definition of trekking is negative one. ?While trekking, never the hands have to be used?. Which makes all the difference between trekking and mountain climbing? Robert Rieffel says front, trekking means to live intensely every minute of each long day and to enjoy the calm beauty of the ever changing mountain scenery, the valleys, the ridges passes and summits. Robert Rieffel says more about trekking in context of Nepal trekking means to know more about the Nepalese people, the farmers, the mountains-talk, their customs and their problems, also to appreciate truly their smiling welcome and their unconditional hospitality.

Trekking is a sport too. Trekking on foot is the only way to know the people, see the culture and enjoy the scenic grandeur. A short trek will reveal picturesque villages surrounded by elaborate terrace field. A longer trek may yield contrasts in the people and their culture from one ecological level to another. In Nepal, trekkers can some of the highest mountains of the word from a close range.

In 1996 there were only 8 trekkers in Nepal, which increased every year and up to 2003, 65721trekkers were registered. In present we have these main trekking routes are used:

   Everest trek
   Helambu, Langtang valley trek
   Annapurna, Manang, Jomson trek
   Dolpa trek
   Kanchanjunga trek
    Mustang trek
    Humla trek
   Manaslu trek
    Jumla trek
The government of Nepal has defined national parks, wildlife reserves and some areas for trekking & mountaineering. These are some national parks and conservation areas, which is defined for trekking & mountaineering activity




Annapurna Conservation Area Project (7629 sq km).

It encompasses forested Middle Mountain, high Himalayan and trans-Himalayan desert plateau ecosystems. The area is dominated by Annapurna I (8,091m). The 10th highest mountain in the world Schema and chestnut trees are found in the subtropical forests between 1000-2000 meter that give way to rhododendron. Oak hemlock and silver fir as you ascend to the temperate zone (1,700-3,000) meter Rhesus monkey, Yellow-throated martens and Himalayan weasels are some of the wild life commonly encountered. Birds include the Himalayan griffon, lammergeyer, fork tail, redstart, thrush and kingfisher. Gurung, Magar, Thakali and Brahmin village dot the lower elevations. The Tibetan cultural influence becomes stronger as you go north.
 
KANCHENJUNGA CONSERVATION AREA (2035 sq KM)

It includes middle mountains and the high Himalayan. It offers high alpine vegetation and a variety of rhododendron, fir, hemlock and oak trees. The area is rich wildlife notably the snow leopard, clouded leopard, blue sheep, Himalayan tahr, marmot and weasel. Kanchanjunga, the third highest mountain in the world at 8,586 meter straddles the border between Nepal and India. This region is the home of the limbu people. For accommodation Tea House and camping use spring and autumn is best season for visit.
   
KHAPTAD NATIONAL PARK (225 sq km)

   It consists of middle and high mountains with an average elevation of 3,000 meter. The vegetation ranges from sub-tropical forests at the lower attitudes to grasslands and oak and coniferous forests on the upland. The fauna includes the leopard, yellow-throated marten, black bear, musk deer, and ghoral and Himalayan tahr. Some of the area is famous for pheasant, partridge, and red- and yellow ?billed blue magpie and Himalayan griffon. The ashram of Khaptad swami is located inside the park.
Fly to Dipayal from Nepalgunj and then a three- day walk for access and for best season: Mar- May and Oct- Nov (10-20 degrees Celsius) Jun ?Sep is rainy and Dec- Feb is snow season.

LANGTANG NATIONAL PARK(1710sq km)

 It encompasses High Mountain and Himalaya terrain. About one ?fourth of the park is forest- oaks, maple, rhododendron, chir pine, fir, blue pine, hemlock and spruce. The holy Gosaikund Lake is situated here. The animals found here are the wild dogs. Himalayan tahr, ghoral, serow, rhesus, monkey and the common langur. This region is also an important route for migrating birds. The majority of the local inhabitants here are Tamangs and Sherpas. Park headquarters is in Dhunche.






« Last Edit: April 22, 2008, 02:04:32 PM by ReSi »
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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #1 on: April 22, 2008, 01:27:18 PM »
MAKALU-BARUN NATIONAL PARK AND CONSERVATION AREA (1,500 sq km national park+830 sq km conservation area+2,330 sq km)

        It extends from high mountains to the high Himalaya. The elevation ranges from 500 to over 8,000 m.Most of this protected area is remote wilderness. It offers more than 3,000 species of flowering plants. Wildlife includes the endangered red panda, musk deer, Himalayan black bear, clouded leopard and possibly the snow leopard too. Over 400 species of birds thrive here. The majority of people living. The conservation area belongs to the Rai community. To access: Fly to Tumlingtar from Kathmandu (one hour) and then a six-day walk.

MANASLU CONSERVATION AREA (1,663 sq km)

    It is situated in a remote area to the north of Gorkha, home of the original Gorkha soldiers. It encompasses the seventh highest mountain in the world.Mt Manaslu (8,156m).The environment is Middle Mountain to high Himalaya, and supports 2,000 species of plants with 19 forest types. There are 110 species of birds. The region has strong Tibetan cultural influences. To access: By bus to Dhading (87 km from Kathmandu) or to Besi Sahar (106 km from Pokhara) and then walking.

RARA NATIONAL PARK (106 sq km)

   It has its gem in Rara. Nepal?s biggest lake (10.8 sq km) at 2,990 m. The park is situated in the high mountain region, much of it at an elevation of about 3,000m.there are coniferous forests of blue pine, black juniper, west Himalayan spruce,oak and Himalayan cypress as well as Indian horse-chestnut,walnut and Himalayan tahr and the wild boar.to access:Fly to Jumla from Kathmandu via Nepalgunj and then a three day walk,or by bus from Nepalgunj to Surkhet (114km)and then a week?s walk.

SAGARMATHA NATIONAL PARK (1,148 sq km)

  It includes the great Himalayan peaks of Everest, Lhotse, Cho Oyu, Nuptse and other giants. It is the land of the Sherpas. Broken into deep gorges and glacial valleys, the park has vegetation graduating from pine, hemlock, fir, and juniper,
Birch, rhododendrons and scrubs to alpine plants and then to bare rock and snow. This is home to the Himalayan tahr , ghoral serow and musk der , common bird s are the Impeyan pleasant, red ? billed chough and the yellow ?billed choought . Elevation ranges from 2845m to 8,848m. Two days walk from lukla, which is 30 minutes by air from Kathmandu
 
SHEY-PHOKSUNDO NATIONAL PARK (3555sq. km)
 
It comprises high Mountain and Trans ? Himalayan ecosystems. It covers parts of Dolpa, the famed land of yak caravans and salt trades. The lifestyle and culture of the local people remaind one of Tibet. The park?s center ? piece is lake Phoksundo (also know as Ringmo). Forest of blue pine. Spruce, cypress poplar, deodar, fir and birch are found here. It is a prime Habitat for the snow leopard and the blue sheep; so also for ghoral, Himalayan tahr, leopard, wolf, jackal, and black bear. The place is equally rich in many kinds of birds.

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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #2 on: April 22, 2008, 01:27:58 PM »
2.2 Annapurna conservation Area (ACA)
   
Launched in 1986, the Annapurna Conservation Area Project (ACA) is the largest undertaking of KMTNC and also the first and largest conservation Area in Nepal. It covers an area of 7,629sq.km and is home to cover 120,000 local people of different ethic, cultural and linguistic group. ACAP is rich in biodiversity. It is a treasure house for 1,226species of flowering plants. 101 species of mammals, 474 species of birds. 39 species of reptiles and 22 species of amphibians. There are many other features which also make the Annapurna region a unique area in the country. The region comprises 4,83 km long and 2.4 km . Wide the world?s deepest Kali Gandaki Gorge, a valley with fossils from the tethys sea dating back 60 million year ago. The region also contains the word?s largest Rhododendron forest in Ghorepani and the World?s highest lake. Tilicho was located in the south and north of the Annapurna massif, respectively. The multifaceted problems of ACAP have been addressed through an integrated, community- based conservation and development scheme, an experimental model which has been in the vanguard of promoting the concepts of ?conservation Area ? and ?integrated conservation and Development Program? in the country and aboard.The focus of ACAP is on integrated tourism management, poverty alleviation, genetic conservation, integrated agriculture development, agro forestry, community development, women empowerment, heritage conservation, alternative energy, resources conservation, health and sanitation and conservation education and extension. The ACAP is the first participatory conservation and development project (PCDP) in Nepal

2.3 Tourist Attraction

Annapurna area is the best area for natural sight seen. Here are about 13 peaks ranging from 6,340 m. to 8,091m. From Ghorepani a panoramic view of the Annapurna ranges can see. The jungle on this hill as rhododendron blossom during spring every year. We can see scenic beauty of the Tilicho Tal at an altitude of 4,919 meters southeast from Jomson. In the Annapurna circuit route, there are religion sites like Muktinath Temple; it is famous for Hindu pilgrims at the height of almost 4000 meters. Further ahead, one has to pass through the Thorang La pass at an altitude of 5410 meters.Upper mustang is the mystinath place bordering with the Tibetan plateau where people reach to witness the ancient civilization. Here are still place where people leave in caves following age ?old tradition and religion. On the way of trekking. Innumerable sights of water falls, mountains natural followers rivers and many lakes.The area is also rich with flora and fauna. There are 1226 plants with around 40 species of orchids. The national flower Rhododendron32 species of Rhododendrons are in whole Nepal out of them nine species of Rhodendrons, we can get in this area here are around 101 mammals. 478 species of birds, 39 reptiles and 22 amphibians in this area. In the mountainside some of the Rara snow Leopards and blue sheep and other areas of the region have protected bird species such as multi-coloured impheyan, koklas, blood pheasants. The conservation area also has rich number of insects including many species of beautiful butterflies.





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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #3 on: April 22, 2008, 01:28:47 PM »
2.4Some Trekking Routes in ACA

1.      Ghalel trek
2.   Pokhara/ Gjandrung Trek
3.   Ghorepani Trek
4.   Jomsom Trek
5.   Annapurna Sanectuary trek
6.   Ghorepani/ poon Hill trek
7.   Sikles trek
8.   Marei Himal trek
9.   Tilicho Tal  Trek
10.   Khayar Tal Trek

2.5Entry Fees for Different Trekking & Conservation Area
The Government of Nepal has defined some areas for trekking & Mountaineering activity and charged to visitors as entry fees are as follow:

Conservation Area
(Annapurna and Manaslu)
Entry Fee per person per Entry
?   For Nepalese nationals. Free
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs200/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Rs 2000/-
(Note: Entrance Fee not required for children under 10 Years)
Filming permit fee (Documentary Films)
?   For Nepalese Nationals or Organization. Rs 7500/-
?   For SAARC Nationals of Organization. Rs. 37,500/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals or organization. Us $ 1,500/-
?   Helicopter Landing (Per Landing). Rs. 2000/-


Himalayan National Park
(Everest, Shey Phoksundo, Rara, Langtang, Makalu Barun)
Entry Fee per person per Entry
?   For Nepalese nationals. Free
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs100/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Rs 1000/-
(Note: Entrance Fee not required for children under 10 Years)
Filming permit fee (Documentary/ Feature Films)
?   For Nepalese Nationals. Rs 5000/-
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs. 25000/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Us $ 1,000/-
?   Helicopter Landing (Per Landing). Rs. 2000/-










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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #4 on: April 22, 2008, 01:32:31 PM »
Kanchanjunga Conservation Area
Entry Fee per person per Entry
?   For Nepalese nationals. Free
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs100/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Rs 1000/-
(Note: Entrance Fee not required for children under 10 Years)
Filming permit fee (Documentary Films)
?   For Nepalese Nationals. Rs 5000/-
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs. 25000/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Us $ 1,000/-
(Feature Films)
?   For Nepalese Nationals. Rs 10,000/-
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs. 50,000/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Us $ 2,000/-
?   Helicopter Landing (Per Landing). Rs. 2000/-
?   Hot Air Balloon Landing. RS .2000/-
?   Other. Rs. 500/-

Khaptad National Park
Entry Fee per person per Entry
?   For Nepalese nationals. Free
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs100/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals. Rs 1000/-
(Note: Entrance Fee not required for children under 10 Years)
Filming permit fee (Documentary/ Feature Films)
?   For Nepalese Nationals. Rs 5000/-
?   For SAARC Nationals. Rs. 25000/-
?   For other Foreign Nationals, equivalent national currency of Us $ 1,000/-
?   Helicopter Landing (Per Landing). Rs. 2000/-

2.6 Annapurna Sanctuary Trek ? 14 Days

The Annapurna Sanctuary Trek is one of the best trekking routs in ACA. The distance between Pokhara (850m) and Annapurna main peak 98079m) is just 40 km. The big difference of Height (7000m) in such a short distance causes the winds to raise abruptly so precipitation in Nepal. Annapurna was first climbed (800m) peaks by a French Expedition in 1950. The distance between the mighty peaks Dhaulagiri (8172m) and Annapurna (8072m) is only 35km. The Kaligandaki breaks through this great Himalayan Range at a level of just 2000m and this gorge between these two massifs is considered to be the deepest gorge in the word. The change and the contrast of landscape, population, culture and the vegetation from Pokhara basin to this great Himalayan Range makes this trip interesting and attracting. Here is describing about this 14 days trek.

Day 1: HENGJA 920 km                                                                  Walking hrs
 Approx.
Trekking fly or drive from Kathmandu to Pokhara where they meet trekking crew and have launch. Then take an easy trail through Pokhara bazaar and follow the yamadi khola through sprawling village of Henja, a Tibetan Refugee center, and camp here.




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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #5 on: April 22, 2008, 01:34:08 PM »
Day 2: ABOVE DUMPUS 1982m                                                 Walking 4 hrs
   Approx.
           Trekkers continue along the vally floor for just over an hour before they start the climb to Dhampus lunching on the way up. After they reach the top of the ridge and the views are magnificent. Macchapuchera, Annapurna South (72 73m).and Annapurna ii (7937) dominate the skyline and move through Dhampus into thick rhododendron forest and camp.

 Day 3 :GHANDRUK 1950m                                                          Walking 3 hrs
Approx.
              A long day. Trekkers continue to climb after leaving camp up to about 2160m. The forest is alive with all varieties of bird life. Then stesdly to the village of Landuring (1650) and lunch on the banks of the Modi khola (1422). Fter lunch they have a steep climb up what is almost a staircase to the Gurung village of Ghundruk. Which is set beautifully against the peaks of south Annapurna and Hiuchuli (6441m)?
 
Day 4: CHOMRO 1950m                                                                 waking 6 hrs
Approx
Trekkers climb up to the top a ridge at 2225m and then descend through thick frest to the river at klumun (1770) where people lunch. After lunch climb another ridge contour the towards the Modi Khola vally and drop to Chomro to camp.

Day 5: DOBAN 2745m                                                                   walking 6 hrs
Approx
             They leave Chomro, the last permanent settlement the Sanctuary and walk up to the Modi Khola vally through beautiful rhododendron and bamboo forest . the valley into a steep sided gorge, and passes numerous high waterfalls. Trekkers camp in a small clearing near the river as it thunders its way downhill.

Day 6: ANNAPURNA SANCTUARY 3690m                                 walking 4 hrs
Approx
Trekkers leave the tree line pass the large overhanging rock of Hinko cave (3017m). In places the trail has become obliterated by rock fall and they have to scramble over rocks and smell streams. Tantalizing glimpses of the massive peaks that form the Sanctuary appears and urge us on to the glaciers. When they reach the moraines the views are incredible, this is a mountain amphitheatre of spectacular size.

DAY 7: SANCTUARY REST AND ACCLIMATISATION DAY
From camp we can take a walk to the Hiuchuli Glacier at 4267m. From here the view of the great peaks and the glaciers flowing from them quite incredible , almost unbelieavable. Beyond anything you could possibly imagine . for those who wise to rest round the camp you will not be disappointed , the views from here are spectacular.




DAY 8: KHULDI GHAR 2377m                                                      walking 6 hrs
Approx
Trekkers descend through the Modi Gorge , past the spectacular  waterfalls and back into the tree line. They camp below the towering peak Macchapurna

DAY9:  KYUMNU 1770m                                                                walking 6 hrs
Approx
Steadily descending all day, Trekkers reach Chomro for lunch and camp                                                  by the river at Kyumnu.
DAY 10: THANTE 2774m                                                               walking 4 hrs     
   Approx
Trekkers climb up through small terraced fields, past farmhouces into the dense forest. This is a particularly good day for the bird-watcher and those interested in flowers. In the winter the Danphe is in bloom. Views of the Annapurna are also excellent. At the end of a days climbing they camp in a small clearing in the forest next to a stream.

DAY 11: GOREPANI 2830m                                                          walking 5 hrs
Approx
In the morning they have a steep and somewhat exciting climb to the Deurali pass (3078) and the views on reaching the top are among the best through Nepal. To the west we see Dhaulagiri (8167m) and Gurja Himal (7139m). to the east Annapurna ii Manaslu (815m). Above us towers the pyramid peak of Annapurna South while below us is the deepest river gorge in the world ? the kali gandaki, over 3 miles deep in places.

DAY 12: BIRETHANTI 1040m                                                        walking 5 hrs
Approx
This is the day all decided that they prefer the uphill to the down hills.  They descend steadily to Trikhedunga (1525m) where we lunch. We have joined the mail trail from Tibet and Khamas, Mustang peoples and the teahouses along the route are mostly run by Thakalis. Quite often they meet Hindu Saddhus (priests) and pilgrims. They reach the Modi Khola once again and camp on its bank.

DAY 13: NAUDANDA 1400M                                                         walking 4 hrs
Approx
They take our last camp up to Chandrakot (1562m) for about an hour and half and stop gratefully for a drink at the teahouses. Then they counter round to the British Agricultural Farm, an experiment station growing fruit trees and vegetables then drop steadily along the Naudanda and camp in full view of the whole Annapurna Ranges.
     
DAY 14: PHEWA TAL LAKE, POKHARA 850m                           walking 4 hrs
Trekkers continue along the ridge, losing sight of the great mountains temporarily, to kaski, one of the most important villages in the history of Nepal. It was from here several centuries ago that unification of Nepal began and the present King?s descendants can be traced back to here. Trekkers then drop quickly to the Lake and reach Pokhara


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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #6 on: April 22, 2008, 01:36:20 PM »
2.7 Necessary Clothing and Equipment for Trekking
  For trekking we should consider necessary equipment and clothing for success trekking so we should arrange equipment and clothing to trek these are as follows:

        iTEM   bELOW
3000M   aBOVE
3000M   rEMARK
Walking shoes   √   √   
Lightweight climbing boots   √      Well broken in
Mountains boots         Necessary in spring or over difficult mountain passes
Small bag    √   √   To carry valuables on your person
Mountain climbing parts   √   √   Or knickers
Shirt   √   √   Woolen
Sweater   √   √   Woolen
Short-sleeve shirt   √   √   Wool
Shorts   √      
Hat   √   √   Broad- brimmed
Underpants   √   √   
Underpants   √   √   
Underwear(both)      √   Woolen for mountain climbing
Socks   √   √   Wool, both thick and thin
Sleeping bag   √   √   Down- filled
Down-filled clothing   √   √   
Down-filled pants      √   Over 500m
Rain gear   √   √   Waterproof
Gloves      √   Wool
Cap      √   Wool
Spats      √   Use in heavy snow
    Mattress            √   May obtain in related place
Sunglasses   √   √   
Headlamp   √   √   Bring dry battery cells in with you
Canteen   √   √   
Thermos      √   
Folding umbrella   √   √   Necessary in spring
Knife   √   √   
Lighter   √   √   Disposable types
Maps and compass   √   √   
Bath supplies   √   √   
Picks         Necessary for mountain passes
Eisen         Only for difficult mountain pass
Tent equipment   √   √   
Cooking equipment   √   √   Buy in related place
Mountain climbing equipment      √   Only for difficult mountain pass courses
Medical supplies   √   √   Cold medicine, anti-diarrhea remedy. Band-aids, sunburn ointment




2.8 Annapurna Conservation Area project (ACAP)

 The Annapurna Conservation Area project (ACAP) initiated in December 1986 under the aegis of the king Mahendra Trust for Nature conservation (KMTNC) since July 1993 the ACAP has been looking after an area of 7629 square kms of the ACA after the final phase two expansion, King Mahendra trust for nature conservation is an autonomous, non- profit making, non government organization (NGO) Established by a legislative Act in 1982. It has the mandate to work in the field of nature conservation in Nepal. The core program areas of resources Conservation education and extension program are discussed under separate divisions.

Resource Conservation is divided into Natural Resource conservation that is further divided into forest management and alternative Energy, and heritage conservation sustainable Rural Development is divided into community Development, women?s Development and Agricultural Development. The chapters Research, Surveys and Evaluation as the name suggests deals with those various studies, which were undertaken in the years ACAP has been following by training  inputs  and financial and technical assistance in the implication of each programs .

Ghandruk village development committee (VDC) from where the pilot project took off in 1986 is now a model project area where the local committees are functioning independently. Ghandruk sector itself includes five VDCs. ACAP has been working in four other VDCs besides Ghandruk  for only three years, and a lot of effort is still ongoing there mostly focused on natural resources. Conservation and tourism management.

   13 Conservation and Development Committee (CDCs) and 14 sub-CDCs were formed so that the number of CDCs now total is 37 and sub-CDCS total is 68 in the ACA that comprises of 55 VDCs. These committees have demonstrated their effectiveness in th3e management of the natural resources where conflicts have risen such as those over forest user?s rights, the committees themselves settled them. Afforestation through private and community tree plantations was carried out. Promotion of the use of alternative energy technologies and energy efficient devices support the forest management program and received due emphasis up to 1995.

Conservation Area Management Committee (CAMC) has a maximum of 15 members in their committee representing at least one member from each ward of the VDC. In some of the place, ACA boundary has intersected the VDC boundary. For institutional Development, as per the provisions made in the Conversation Area Management Regulation and Directive, Conservation Area Committees (CAMCs), Forest Management Committees (FMCs) and other sub-committees are fully functional within the ACA. There are eight Snow Leopard Conservation Sub-committees and the two Must Deer Conservation Sub-committees in Manang.


As part of the heritage conservation program, in the modern Annapurna belt, which includes the sectors of Manang, Jomsom and Lo Manthang, a number of ghompas (Buddhist monastery) received assistance from the project. A monastic school was also established with ACAP?s support in Lo Manthang.

The Agricultural Development program is doing very well in Lwang and Sikles sector. Many private vegetable nurseries for the distribution of vegetables, seeds and seedlings have been established. It is
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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #7 on: April 22, 2008, 01:37:37 PM »
observed that more frarmers are adopting organic and agro forestry methods of farming. A special program for the genetic conservation of livestock is being implemented in Bhujung sector. A livestock Gene Conservation and management committee has already been formed to disallow the introduction of new breeds into the area.Commendable work was accomplished in infrastructure development through the building and repair of drinking water schemes, bridges, trials, health post, schools and toilets. The women?s development program remained focused on empowering the women through education and confidence building. Adult literacy classes were run in Ghandruk, Lwang, Sikles and Bhujung sectors. Entrepreneurship was encouraged among the women and selected groups were given specific training and taken on study tours.

The sustainable tourism management program carried out awareness camps and training courses to improve the quality of tourism services while becoming environmentally responsible. Additional information centers were established and signage put up for the trekker?s convenience. Conservation Education and Extension Program, which is called the heart of the ACAP, diffuses into the other programs and cannot be isolated entirely. Throughout the year, home visits, village mass meeting, mobile camps, conservation awareness camps, clean up campaigns and special events were organized to continue the work of ACAP ethos dissemination and community mobilization in conservation efforts. Conservation education is being taught formally in 25 schools were there up to 1994/95 now there were 65 such schools in the ACA in 1999/00 in the ACA.

a)   ACAP?S INSTITUTIONAL STRUCTURE

The ultimate aim of the ACAP is to achieve sustainability in the conservation of the natural resources of the area through people?s participation. The concept is about sustainable use and the management by the local people which is only possible through their empowerment. It is therefore necessary to facilitate the formation of the local committees or institutions of specific groups of the people. ACAP facilitates the formation of a number of local institutions that will gradually function independently and take the management of the area into their own hands. These local institutional bodies that comprise ACAP?s institutional structure are as follows:

?   Conservation Area Management Committee (CAMC)
?   Conservation and Development Committee (CDC)
?   Sub-Conservation and Development Committee (sub-CDC)
?   Lodge Management Committee (LMC)
?   Kerosene Depot Committees (KDC)
?   Electrically Management Committees (EMC)
?   Women?s Group (Ama Toli)
?   Ghompa Management Committees (GMC)








CAMC and their Supported sub-committees (1999/00)

CONSERVATION AREA MANAGEMENT COMMITTEE (CAMC)   55
Forest Management  Sub-committee   95
Women?s Group   411
Day Care Centre Management Sub-committee   7
Electricity Management Sub-committee   9
Kerosene Depot Management Sub-committee   21
Tourism Management Sub-committee   26
Campsite Management Sub-committee   11
Community Lodge Management Sub-committee   1
Community Hotel Post Committee   2
Livestock Management Sub-committee   5
Eco-museum Management Sub-committee   1
Gompa Management Sub-committee   6
Musk Deer Conservation Sub-committee   2
Snow Leopard Conservation Sub-committee   8
Total   660

Sources:- King Mahendra Trust For Nature Conservation


b)   Philosophy of ACAP

ACAP attempts to address the need of conserving the fragile environment of the Annapurna region while at the same time improving the economic condition of the inhabitants of the area. It recognizes that protection of a delicately balanced habitat and the maintenance of its bio-diversity cannot be achieved without the support of the local inhabitants. Hence ACAP stresses maximum people?s participation in its entire programme. Working hand-in-hand with the local people ACAP hopes to ensure that its entire project is self-sustaing.

ACAP aims to improve the socio-economic condition of the local inhabitants that requires many projects and the lots of financial and technical support. To fulfill all these requirements ACAP may not have sufficient financial strength and technical expertise. In these instances, ACAP acts as matchmaker to approach outside sources within the country as well as abroad.

c)   Philosophy of ACAP

The mission statement of the KMTNC directs ACAP. The KMTNC mission statement sets the framework for the goal and objectives of ACAP.

Goal:

Achieve sustained balance between nature conservation and socio-economic improvement in the Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) thereby assist King Mahendra Trust for Nature Conservation (KMTNC) in achieving its goal.




Objectives:

ACAP has set the following three objectives:

?   Conserve the natural resources of Annapurna Conservation Area for the benefit of the present and future generations.
?   Bring sustainable social and economic development to the local people.
?   Develop tourism in such a way that it will have minimum negative impact on the natural, socio-cultural and economic environments.

d)   Major Partners of ACAP

i.   Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation (MTCA), His Majesty?s Government of Nepal for Upper Mustang Conservation and Development Project in Lomanthang sector.
ii.   The Netherlands Development Organization (SNV) for Agro-forestry and Community Development Project in Lwang sector.
iii.   Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) / Trans-Himalayan Aid Society (TRAS) for Integrated Agriculture Development Project in Sikles sector and for Mustang Girl Scholarship in Jomsom and Lomanthang sector.
iv.   American Himalayan Foundation (AHF) for Heritage Conservation and Health / services Project in Upper Mustang.
v.   Schuetzt den Regenwald e.v. and Deutsche Stiftung Weltbevoelkerung (DSW) Germany for Bhujung Woman Promotion Project and Reproductive Health Project in Bhujung sector respectively. GEO has also provided financial support for Modi Bio-diversity Conservation Project in Ghandruk sector.
vi.   Tokishima ?Japan-Nepal Friendship Association (TJNFA) for Bhujung Micro-hydro Electricity Project in Bhujung sector.
vii.   British Emabassy, Kathmandu for Micro-hydro Electricity Project in Tikhedhunga (Ulleri) II phases in Ghandruk sector.
viii.   Kadoorie Agriculture Aid Association (KAAA), Hong Kong for Micro-hydro Electricity Project at Chhomrong, Ghanruk sector.
ix.   New Zealand Overseas Development Agency (NZ-ODA) for safe Drinking Water Project in Annapurna Trekking Circuit and Thorang Micro-hydro in Manang sector.
x.   Nepal Tourism Board (NTB) for Waste Management and Tourism Management Project in Lomanthang, Jomsom and Ghandruk sector.
xi.   Appropriate Technology for Tibetans (ApTibet) for Passive Solar Architecture Project in Jomsom sector.









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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #8 on: April 22, 2008, 01:39:05 PM »

2.9 Some Trekking Routes Around the country

AROUND KATHMANDU VALLEY
1.   KAKANI OVERNIGHT CAMPING
2.   DHULIKHEL / NAMO BUDDHA
3.   DAMAN- OVERNIGHT CAMPING
4.   SUNDARIJAL/ SHIVAPURI
5.   NAGARKOT/ SHIVAPURI
6.   NAGARKOT/ KAKANI

AROUND POKHARA
1.   POKHARA/ BEGNAS AND RUPA TAL
2.   POKHARA/ SARANGKOT
3.   POKHARA/ GHACHOWK
4.   POKHARA/NAUDANDA
5.   POKHARA/ SAKLUNG
6.   ROYAL TREK
7.   POKHARA/ BEGNASTAL
8.   POKHARA/ DHAMPUS

NORTH OF POKHARA (ANNAPURNA AREA)
1.   GHALEL TREK
2.   POKHARA/GHANDRUNG
3.   GHOREPANI TREK
4.   JOMSON TREK
5.   ANNAPURNA SANCTUARY TREK
6.   ANNAPURNA CIRCUIT

NORTH OF KATHMANDU
1.   KATHMANDU/ GOSAINKUNDA
2.   HELAMBU VALLEY
3.   LANGTANG VALLEY AND GOSAINKUNDA LAKES TREK
4.   LANGTANG/ GOSAINKUNDA LAKES
 
EVEREST AREA
1.   KHUMBU TRAIL- GOKYO VALLEY
2.   LUKLA / KHIMBU TREK
3.   EVEREST BASE CAMP TREK
4.   EVEREST TREK
5.   TRADITION BASE CAMP TREK
6.   TWIN BASE TREK CHOOYU
7.   EVEREST WALK- (ROAD/ AIR)

EAST NEPAL
1.   KANCHHENJUNGA TREK
2.   KANGCHENZONGA BASE CAMP

WESTERN NEPAL
1.   DOLPA TREK 1
2.   DOLPA TREK 2
3.   SUPPLEMENTERY TO TREK2

CHAPTERIII
   
3.1Trekking Tourist by Major Nationalities (2000-2003)


Nationality   Year
   2000   %   2001   %   2002   %   2003   %
Australia   12189   2.6   10455   2.9   7159   2.6   7916   2.3
Austria   5221   1.1   4164   1.2   3140   1.1   3025   0.9
Canada   8590   1.9   7068   2.0   3747   1.4   4154   1.2
Denmark   4847   1.0   3854   1.1   2040   0.7   2178   0.6
France   24506   5.3   21187   5.9   13376   4.9   15865   4.7
Germany   26263   5.7   21577   6.0   15774   5.7   14866   4.4
India   95915   20.7   64320   17.8   66777   24.2   86363   25.5
Italy   11491   2.5   8745   2.4   8057   2.9   8243   2.4
Japan   41070   8.9   28830   8.0   23223   8.4   27412   8.1
Netherlands   16211   3.5   13662   3.8   8306   3.0   8443   2.5
Spain   8874   1.9   5897   1.6   5267   1.9   8265   2.4
Switzerland   6230   1.3   5649   1.6   3352   1.2   3246   1.2
SirLanka   16649   3.6   9844   2.7   9805   3.6   13930   4.1
U.S.A   40442   8.7   32052   8.9   17518   6.4   18838   5.6
U.K   37765   8.1   33533   9.3   21007   7.6   22101   6.5
Others   107383   23.2   90400   25.0   66920   24.3   93287   27.6
Total
   463646   100   361237   100   275468                                  100   338132   100




















3.2 Number of trekkers in different trekking area (1997-2003)

YEAR   EVEREST   HELAMBU LANGTANG VALLEY   ANNAPURNA MANANG JOMSOM   CONTROL AREA
            Lower Dolpa   Kanchan Junga   Mustang   Upper Dolpa   Humla   Manaslu   Others   Total
1998   22,826   10,952   65,587   322   782   798   81   538   756   10,002   112,644
1999   26,788   8,612   67,371   645   794   1,027   214   835   620   1,054   107,960
2000   26,683   10,917   76,398   1,069   375   1,069   121   509   617   1,022   118,780
2001   22,029   9,148   65,313   488   690   922   119   337   798   984   100,828
2002   13,982   4,798   38,277   0   478   536   119   339   428   243   59,279
2003   18,812   3,119   40,668   0   402   572   369   223   645   757   65,721
According to record of Year 2003 a total of 65721 trekkers were registered. Out of total 61.88% visited Annapurna area while those visiting the Everest and Langtang regions accounted for 28.63% and 4.75% respectively. Year 2002 64.57% trekkers visiting the ACA and in 2001 64.78%are visited. Year 2003is decreased by 2.69 %.



 








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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #9 on: April 22, 2008, 01:46:32 PM »

 










3.3 Monthly Breakdown of Trekkers In Annapurna Area

Month   2001   2002   2003   2004
January   3375   1659   1842   34204
February   4714   2877   2325   49971
March   10396   6147   2955   108783
April   10400   4581   5484   93801
May   3336   1411   2228   36261
June   540   591   782   9724
July   1365   764   864   17439
August   1639   997   1489   18139
September   5626   3535   4315   61282
October   12910   8334   9576   154846
November   8069   5017   5698   114598
December   2943   2729   3110   63194
Total   65313   38642   40668   762248
The trekkers mostly trek in the month of October, April, March and November. Lowest trekkers in the month of June only 9724 trekkers.

 
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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #10 on: April 22, 2008, 01:48:07 PM »
3.4No of Trekkers In Annapurna By Individual And Agency Handled

Total No of trekkers in Annapurna area by agency handled and individual                                         2003


Agency Handled
Individual

    Total   Jan
   Feb
   Mar
   Apr
   May
   Jun
   Jul
   Aug
   Sep
   Oct
   Nov
   Dec
   Total    (%)

   1842

826

2668    2325

1829

4496   2955

3265

6220   5484

2347

7831   2228

677

2905   782

418

1200   864

802

1666   1489

2884

4373   4315

5589

9904   9576

4757

14333    5698

1054

6752   3110

263

3373   40668 62%

25053   38%

65721 100%

Out of total trekker 62% of trekker visited Annapurna Area by Agency and 38% visits individually on the record of 2003


3.5 No. of Trekkers In Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA)


Year
   Total  Arrival   Total Trekkers   Trekker in Annapurna Conservation Area
         No. of Trekkers   % of Total Trekkers
1999   491504   107960   67485   62.40%
2000   463346   118780   76407   64.32%
2001   361237     100828   65313   64.78%
2002   275468   59279   38642   65.19%
2003   338132   65721   40668   61.88%
Source NTB


 

In 1999, 491504 Tourist had visited Nepal it was highest tourist arrival year in Nepal.
But in 2000, only 463646 tourists had visited which were less than 1999. In 2001only 361237 tourists arrived. It is also less than 2000.In 2002 and 2003, 275468 and 338132 respectively arrived in Nepal .Year 2003 is highest than 2002. 


3.6 Total Tourist Arrival and Total Earning (2000-2003)


Year   Total Arrival   Total Earning US$ (000)   Trekkers in ACA
2000   463646   166847   76398
2001   361237   140276   65313
2002   275468   106822   38642
2003   338132   192832   40668
Source NTB




 


Gross foreign Exchange Earning in 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 are $ 166847000,$140276000,$106822000 and $192832000 tourists respectively. Total Trekkers in ACA are 76398, 65313, 38642 and 40668 respectively. But there is nit any information or record about trekker?s expenditure of ACAP. Hence I just keep here total trekkers arrival.








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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #11 on: April 22, 2008, 01:51:48 PM »
3.7 Tourist Arrivals by Age & Sex (1999-2003)
Year   SEX   TOTAL   AGE GROUP   tOTAL
   Male   Female      0-15   16-30   31-45   46-60   61&over   

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003   
286161
(58.2)
266937
(57.6)
213465
(59.1)
174710
(63.4)
204732
(60.5)   
205343
(41.8)
196709
(42.4)
147772
(40.9)
100758
(36.6)
133400
(39.5)   
491504
(100)
463646
(100)
361237
(100)
275468
(100)
338132
(100)   
30967
(6.3)
19136
(4.1)
14608
(4.0)
12425
(4.5)
16056
(4.7)   
150307
(30.6)
119816
(25.8)
95801
(26.5)
67774
(24.6)
78357
(23.2)   
155985
(31.7)
148063
(31.9)
115678
(32.0)
99622
(36.2)
99740
(29.5)   
113314
(23.1)
125140
(27.0)
93621
(25.9)
67017
(24.3)
85753
(25.4)   
40913
(8.3)
51491
(11.1)
41529
(11.5)
28630
(10.4)
58226
(17.2)   
491504
(100)
463646
(100)
361237
(100)
275468
(100)
338132
(100)


1999 was the highest tourist arrival year. Among them only 41.8% female arrived and male arrived percentage was 58.2%. In this way in 2000 42.4% female and 57.6% male and in 2001. 40.9% female and 59.1% male arrived. Year 2003 60.5% male and 39.5 female are arrived. According to age group, 31-45 year old tourist mostly come Nepal than other age group.

 






3.8 Tourist Arrival by Purpose of Visit (1999-2003)
Year   Holiday    Trekking   Business   Pilgrimage   Official   conv.
conf.      Total
1999   290862
(59.2)   107960
(22.0)   23813
(4.8)   19198
(3.9)   24132
(4.9)   5965
(1.2)   491504
(100)
2000   255889
(55.2)   118780
(25.6)   29454
(6.4)   15801
(3.4)   20832
(4.5)   5599
(1.2)   463646
(100)
2001   187022
(51.8)   100828
(27.9)   18528
(5.1)   13816
(3.8)   18727
(5.2)   0
(0.0)   361237
(100)
2002   110143
(40.0)   59279
(21.5)   16990
(6.2)   12366
(4.5)   17783
(6.5)   0
(0.0)   275468
(100)
2003   97904
(29.0)   65721
(19.4)   19387
(5.7)   21395
(6.3)   21967
(6.5)   0
(0.0)   338132
(100)

According to purpose of visit, only 22% tourist visited for trekking purpose in 1999. And  25.6%.27.9%, 21.5%and 19.4% tourist visited for trekking purpose in 2000,2001,2002and 2003 respectively. But mainly tourist arrived for purpose of holiday.


 

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Re: Background of the study
« Reply #12 on: April 22, 2008, 01:53:07 PM »
CHAPTER IV



Summary & Conclusion


The studies on trekking tourism Annapurna conservation are performance brings into this conclusion that trekking tourist are stay long length of days and Nepal is best country  for trekkers and climber. Including the highest mountain Mt. Everest 32 peaks are here above 7600meter. Tourism industry has played vital role in creating income and employment for the country. Its effectiveness is tremendous. The 6 trekking tourism can be the best industry for our country it gives more income of foreign exchange than other sector.


On the record of 2003 a total of 338132 tourists visited Nepal. Tourist arrivals to Nepal, 59.2% from Asia, 28.1% from Western Europe, or 1.9% from Eastern Europe,               
6.8% from North America 0.7% from South & Central America, 2.8% from Australia and Pacific and 0.5% from Africa. Adventure tourist posted the highest average length of stay in the country. The average length of stay was recorded as 11.9 days 25.62% tourist visited Nepal for Trekking purposes. 65721 trekkers visited  Nepal out of them 61.88% visited Annapurna area while those visiting the Everest  and Langtang regions accounted for 28.6% and 4.7% respectively. Up to 2003 645 trekking agencies were recorded. ACA is the most popular area for trekkers. The King Mahendra trust for Nature conservation is working to project the area as Annapurna Conservation Area project since 1986.


Tourism industry has been main industry for most of country. Tourism industry is also known as unpolluted industry. Here are many Tourism places that make attraction for tourist such as mountaineering, rafting trekking, traditional places, famous holy places and it is also special for flora and fauna.


In 1999, 491504 tourists had visited Nepal it was highest tourist arrival year in Nepal.Out of them 86%arrived by air and 14% by land, 25% tourist had arrived for trekking purpose. And 463464 trekkers had arrived in 2000 out of them 25.6% arrived for trekking purpose.  But in 2001, only 361237 tourist had arrived, which is decreased by 22% out of them Only27.9% trekkers arrived for trekking purpose in 2001 which is decreased by 15%. In 2002, 275468 tourists had arrived, which is decreased by 23.7% and 2003, 338132 tourists had arrived, which is increased by 22.7%. Adventure tourist s posted the highest average length of stay in the country. It is say that, ?Nepal is paradise for trekkers and Kayakers.? Here are 8 highest peaks out of 10higest peaks in the word, more than 100 trekking routes and all 6 level of river are here for rafting that?s the attraction for adventure tourism. Trekking agencies are increasing every year it is also denote that trekkers are increasing every year. The number of trekking agencies recorded in 1999 were 475 in 2000 it increase to 537 (increase by 13%) and in 2001 it increase 580 agencies (increased by 8%) in 2002 it increase 611 agencies (increase by 5.3%) and in 2003 it increase 645 agencies (increased by 5.57%) every year trekking agencies are increasing. Every year more than 65721 tourists visit Nepal by trekking purpose out of total trekker about 61.8% visits Annapurna conservation Area where as Everest and Lang tang Region about 28.6%and 4.7% respectively. Annapurna conservation Area is largest trekking areas in Nepal.
In 1966 only 8 trekkers were there then in 1976 it increased to 13891 trekkers after a decade in 1986 it increased to 49575 no. of trekkers and in 1996 it increased to 88945then in 2000, 118780 trekkers were registered .  In 2001, 2002 100828 and 59279trekkers were registered respectively. But 2003 only 65721 arrived in Nepal. Out of them 39240 visited in ACA. ACA is the most popular area for trekkers.


Recommended


?   The legal procedure of tourism sector is not adequate concern persons are not satisfied with the law of country in tourism sector.

?   Adventure tourist posted highest average length of stay in Nepal for adventure they go to the hill and mountain side but these areas are still undeveloped visitors stay these areas much but in these area has not source of earning so if we could give all types of facilities in these area it generates more income and employment.

?   Still the government is not able to life security of adventure tourism related employer Sherpa are the most popular for mountain climbing sometimes by accidentally they loose part of body and even life too. So government should provide them sufficient facilities.

?   The equipments of trekking tourism are very low so related departments should be concerned.

?   Pollution must be controlled in trekking and mountaineering area also manage of good communication process in remote area.

 















BIBLIOGRAPHY

1.   The complementary books of ?Nepal Travaller? different edition.
2.   National parks. Conservation Area & Wildlife Reserves published by NTB.
3.   HMG of Nepal: Ministry of culture, Tourism and Civil Aviation ? Nepal Tourism statistics 1998, 1999 , 2000 ,2001 ,2002 & 2003?
4.   Annapurna Conservation Area Project annual report of 2004
5.   Annapurna Conservation Area Project retrospective report July 1997-july2004
6.   Ghosh Biswanath ?Tourism & Travel Management?
7.   Satyal, Yajna Raj ? Tourism in Nepal a profile?
8.   Shrestha, Hari Prasad ? Tourism in Nepal Marketing Challenges?
9.   Rieffel, Robert ? Namaste Napal?

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Re: Background of the study part -II
« Reply #13 on: April 22, 2008, 04:38:03 PM »
Wah nice info
nice info
Pakka 5,000 wil be added In napals Tourism field cuming year now :D

thank you resig for sharin hai

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Re: Background of the study part -II
« Reply #14 on: May 05, 2008, 06:42:04 PM »
wow nIce Inf.resu............................kya long
balla-balla padhe tehi ni 30mint lageyo..
Thank u resu 4 nice inf.
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